kraal, noun

Forms:
chraal, coraalShow more Also chraal, coraal, craal, crael, krael, krail, krale, krall.
Origin:
Dutch, PortugueseShow more Dutch koraal, kraal from Portuguese curral corral, enclosure, fold.
1.
a. A traditional African village or extended settlement; crawl sense a; stat sense 1; cf. umzi. Also attributive passing into adjective, now often pejorative, meaning ‘unsophisticated’, ‘rural’ (see quotations 1946, 1957, and 1974).
1731 G. Medley tr. of P. Kolben’s Present State of Cape of G.H. I. 75The Kraals, as they call them, or villages, of the Hassaquas are larger.
1990 G. Slovo Ties of Blood 43This customer was going to be a difficult one. He was a real kraal type with his thick blanket around his shoulders.
b. transferred sense ?obsolete. The community inhabiting a traditional village.
1731 G. Medley tr. of P. Kolben’s Present State of Cape of G.H. I. 279On these and the like Occasions the whole Kraal testifies its Joy in Dancings.
1899 Natal Agric. Jrnl 31 Mar. 4‘Kraal,’..a community of kafirs (whose huts are generally arranged in circles or sections of circles).
2.
a. A hut or cluster of huts occupied by one family or clan, either standing alone or as part of a traditional African village; the labourers’ huts on a farm; homestead sense 2; werf sense 2 a; cf. umzi. b. transferred sense The family or clan inhabiting these dwellings. Also attributive (sometimes pejorative, implying a lack of sophistication).
Note:
‘Homestead’ is the preferred term among anthropologists.
1786 G. Forster tr. of A. Sparrman’s Voy. to Cape of G.H. I. 197The order or distribution of these huts in a craal or clan, is most frequently in the form of a circle with the doors inwards.
1993 Weekend Mercury 2 Jan. 17Since becoming self-employed, he has built and furnished his own kraal.
c. With distinguishing epithet denoting a particular type of kraal: royal kraal, a homestead where the chief of an African people lives and holds court, or where his wife and children live; cf. great place (see great).
1926 M. Nathan S. Afr. from Within 36Invaded the country with three columns, Ulundi, the royal kraal, being their objective.
1987 Drum Mar. 13The king then called his first meeting of the nation at the Royal kraal, Ludzidzini. Thousands of Swazis gathered at the royal place from the early hours of the morning.
3.
a. An enclosure, fold, or pen for domestic or other animals; crawl sense b. Also attributive. See also cattle-boma (boma noun1 sense 3 b), skutkraal.
1795 C.R. Hopson tr. of C.P. Thunberg’s Trav. I. 164A place or fold where sheep or cattle were enclosed in the open air was called a kraal.
1990 R. Stengel January Sun 13About two dozen cows and bulls..stand in the muddy kraal next to the barn. Kraal is the Afrikaans word for what an American cowboy would call a corral, a term with the same Latin root, currale, meaning ‘enclosure’.
b. With distinguishing epithet.
i. Designating enclosures for various kinds of domestic or other animals, as cattle-kraal, fish-kraal, goat-kraal, lamb-kraal, sheep-kraal, turtle-kraal, etc. See also beast-kraal (beast sense 2).
1817 G. Barker Journal. 19 Nov.Went to the cattle kraal to settle some differences among the people.
1993 Weekly Mail & Guardian 23 Dec. 15Although we do not have our cattle kraals in the township, traditional weddings still take place.
ii. Designating particular uses, as keep-kraal, a kraal for segregating or holding game; out-kraal, a kraal far from a farm homestead; skutkraal, see as a main entry; sorting kraal, a kraal for sorting and separating animals into groups; wash-kraal nonce, an open-air bathing enclosure.
1850 J.D. Lewins Diary. 5 Oct.Had a visit from Kew. To give him my wash-place. He will send poles for wash-kraal & make me also a spout.
1972 Grocott’s Mail 16 May 1There is a cattle dip as well as a sheep dip tank with sorting kraals.
c. Figurative and transferred sense In sense 3 a, but referring to a place used or inhabited by people, or to a grouping of people.
i. A contained area, an enclosure.
1853 Report ( 12 Dec.) in Cape of G.H. Annexures (1854) 74I was put into the kraal with the lunatics.
1961 H.F. Sampson White-Faced Huts 36I saw Vamsinya in a little kraal in the centre of the Court...The old gentleman who spoke kaffir put up two fingers of his right hand, and told me to speak the truth, so help me God!
ii. A social grouping based on economic, political, linguistic, ethnic, or other differences, and serving to separate people from one another.
1938 A.H. Murray in Star 16 July 10The Afrikaner kraal is being drawn so narrow that it is almost impossible to move within it. You must not dance and you must not play cards, [etc.].
1991 F.G. Butler Local Habitation 100These Christian Nationalists were going to legislate all education into a monolithic master-plan of separate linguistic kraals.
d. combinations
kraal bird rare, the small bird Pytelia melba ;
kraalbos /-bɔs/, also kraal-bosch, [Afrikaans, bos (earlier South African Dutch bosch) bush], any of several shrubs used for making enclosures for livestock, especially Galenia africana and Eretia rigida; also kraal bosje [see boschje] ;
kraal fuel, Free State coal (see Free State adjectival phrase sense 2) ;
kraal manure, kraalmis /məs/, [Afrikaans, mis manure], dung taken from animal enclosures, dried, and used for fertilizing lands or gardens, or as building material; see also mis sense 1 ;
kraalward adverb, towards a kraal ;
kraal-wood, wood used for building rough animal enclosures.
1900 Stark & Sclater Birds of S. Afr. I. 90This Finch (sc. Pytelia melba) is found sparingly in Damara and Great Namaqua Land...Its favourite resort is low bush and old abandoned village fences, whence the Damaras call it the ‘Kraal bird’.
1907 T.R. Sim Forests & Forest Flora 68No Kraalwood or Firewood shall be cut within twenty (20) yards of the edge of the Crown Forest.
4. In sense 1, 2 and 3: an element in place names.
1838 J.E. Alexander Exped. into Int. I. 41The site of the institution of Ebenezer was formerly called Doorn Kraal (thorn village or pen).
1989 P.E. Raper Dict. of Sn Afr. Place Names 217Hooge Kraal, Former name of Pacaltsdorp. Of Dutch origin, the name means ‘high-lying byre’, ‘village at a high elevation’.
5. combinations
kraal dog, kaffir dog sense 1;
kraalhead [English head leader], the head of a traditional African village; the head of a family or clan.
1970 Daily Dispatch 30 Jan. 14Kaiser the tribal terrier — once a mangy kraal dog with his ribs showing.
1985 Platzky & Walker Surplus People 146A press statement..listed convictions for ‘291 kraal heads (2246 souls)’ who were squatting illegally on their former land.
A traditional African village or extended settlement; crawla; stat1;
The community inhabiting a traditional village.
A hut or cluster of huts occupied by one family or clan, either standing alone or as part of a traditional African village; the labourers’ huts on a farm; homestead2; werf2 a;
royal kraal, a homestead where the chief of an African people lives and holds court, or where his wife and children live;
An enclosure, fold, or pen for domestic or other animals; crawlb. Also attributive.
Designating enclosures for various kinds of domestic or other animals, as cattle-kraal, fish-kraal, goat-kraal, lamb-kraal, sheep-kraal, turtle-kraal, etc. See also beast-kraalbeast2.
Designating particular uses, as keep-kraal, a kraal for segregating or holding game; out-kraal, a kraal far from a farm homestead; skutkraal, see as a main entry; sorting kraal, a kraal for sorting and separating animals into groups; wash-kraalnonce, an open-air bathing enclosure.
A contained area, an enclosure.
A social grouping based on economic, political, linguistic, ethnic, or other differences, and serving to separate people from one another.
the small bird Pytelia melba
, any of several shrubs used for making enclosures for livestock, especially Galenia africana and Eretia rigida; also kraal bosjesee boschje
, Free State coalFree Stateadjectival phrase2
, dung taken from animal enclosures, dried, and used for fertilizing lands or gardens, or as building material;
, towards a kraal
an element in place names.
Derivatives:
Hence kraalful noun.

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17311993