kraal, noun

Forms:
chraal, coraalShow more Also chraal, coraal, craal, crael, krael, krail, krale, krall.
Origin:
Dutch, PortugueseShow more Dutch koraal, kraal from Portuguese curral corral, enclosure, fold.
1.
a. A traditional African village or extended settlement; crawl sense a; stat sense 1; cf. umzi. Also attributive passing into adjective, now often pejorative, meaning ‘unsophisticated’, ‘rural’ (see quotations 1946, 1957, and 1974).
1731 G. Medley tr. of P. Kolben’s Present State of Cape of G.H. I. 75The Kraals, as they call them, or villages, of the Hassaquas are larger.
1786 G. Forster tr. of A. Sparrman’s Voy. to Cape of G.H. I.In a Hottentot’s craal, or village, the huts are all built exactly alike.
1798 S.H. Wilcocke tr. of J.S. Stavorinus’s Voy. to E. Indies I. 547[Hottentots]..dwell together in villages, called kraals, and are under a chief.
a1823 J. Ewart Jrnl (1970) 46Thirty or forty of these [habitations] usualy form’d a kraal or village over which presided a chief.
1828 W. Shaw Diary. 28 JuneSeveral Kraals or Native Villages, where all the huts were burned down to the ground.
1835 W.B. Boyce in A. Steedman Wanderings II. 268Mr. Shepstone counted a hundred kraals, each of which contained from twenty to forty houses.
1849 R. Gray Jrnls of Two Visitations I. 39The Kraal of the Kaffir, several of which we passed, is very similar to the village of the Fingoe.
1860 A.W. Drayson Sporting Scenes 18Kraal is a Dutch term, and means an inclosure for animals. I fancy that they call the Kaffirs’ residences by this name to indicate their contempt for the people; the Kaffirs call their villages ‘umsi’.
1860 W. Shaw Story of my Mission 410The dwellings of the Kaffirs consist of huts, a collection of from five to thirty of which constitute what the Colonists call a kraal.
1877 F. Jeppe Tvl Bk Almanac & Dir. (1976) 33Tons of iron..were carried out of a Kafir kraal near Matzibandela’s which was ransacked by Knobnoses.
1885 H. Rider Haggard King Solomon’s Mines (1972) 35Red sandhills and wide sweeps of vivid green, dotted here and there with Kafir kraals.
1891 R.W. Murray S. Africa 194A kraal is..a collection of huts surrounded by mud walls or palisading.
1899 G.M. Theal Rec. of Cape Col. V. 134The kraal was found to consist of five or six hundred huts, and to contain about five thousand people.
1907 W.C. Scully By Veldt & Kopje 1The District Surgeon had..been busy riding from kraal to kraal in these locations where the disease existed.
1925 D. Kidd Essential Kafir 12The word kraal does not connote a single hut; it is a collection of huts. It is sometimes called a village.
1934 B.I. Buchanan Pioneer Days 156The kraal was a very large one, about a mile in circumference, built in the usual Zulu style — a double stockade of rough poles with huts between.
1938 E. Rosenthal in D.B. Coplan, Urbanization of African Performing Arts. (1980) 54The simple-minded black from the kraal was immensely impressed by the sophisticated dress of his brother from the far side of the Atlantic.
1941 C.W. De Kiewiet Hist. of S. Afr. 219For many natives the links between the old life of the kraal and the new life of the city corroded and snapped.
1946 T. Macdonald Ouma Smuts 51The black man was coming out of his kraal.
1957 D. Jacobson Price of Diamonds 26Asking her why she had called the offending boy a lazy kraal kaffir.
1958 D. Jacobson Through Wilderness (1977) 22He was a good boy, come straight from the kraal.
1974 Sunday Times 23 Feb. 9An eloquent dramatisation of the obstacles in the way of success for the kraal African who migrates to the city in search of work.
1980 D.B. Coplan Urbanization of African Performing Arts. 348In 1952, a commercial company installed a rediffusion service in Soweto’s Orlando township and met with opposition...The African National Congress feared that radio would become an instrument of government propaganda. Others attacked it as a ‘back-to-the-kraal, apartheid and never-never-land service’ that used African languages (rather than English).
1983 P.S. Rabie tr. of Nienaber & Raper’s Hottentot Place Names 7At first the Hottentots were like free burghers, were never enslaved and retained their own kraal civilization fully intact.
1990 E. Prov. Herald 19 Jan. 2The bodies of 11 people between the ages of 11 and 48 were found at four different kraals in the Natal Sweetwaters area.
1990 G. Slovo Ties of Blood 43This customer was going to be a difficult one. He was a real kraal type with his thick blanket around his shoulders.
b. transferred sense ?obsolete. The community inhabiting a traditional village.
1731 G. Medley tr. of P. Kolben’s Present State of Cape of G.H. I. 279On these and the like Occasions the whole Kraal testifies its Joy in Dancings.
1786 G. Forster tr. of A. Sparrman’s Voy. to Cape of G.H. I. 173We met with a refusal likewise from them, on our sending to a couple of craals, or communities.
1804 R. Percival Acct of Cape of G.H. 81Still indeed there are some Kraals or tribes of these people living quietly.
1808 R. Collins in G.M. Theal Rec. of Cape Col. (1900) VI. 340The other kraals of that part of the country were said to be mostly hostile.
1821 J. Ayliff Journal. 22That every Chraal May Unite to praise the Lord.
1852 M.B. Hudson S. Afr. Frontier Life 36Rescued a fine of four cattle imposed on a kraal for a theft.
1876 F. Boyle Savage Life 209The Zulu kraals under his father’s sovereignty had treked thither.
1899 Natal Agric. Jrnl 31 Mar. 4‘Kraal,’..a community of kafirs (whose huts are generally arranged in circles or sections of circles).
2.
a. A hut or cluster of huts occupied by one family or clan, either standing alone or as part of a traditional African village; the labourers’ huts on a farm; homestead sense 2; werf sense 2 a; cf. umzi. b. transferred sense The family or clan inhabiting these dwellings. Also attributive (sometimes pejorative, implying a lack of sophistication).
Note:
‘Homestead’ is the preferred term among anthropologists.
1786 G. Forster tr. of A. Sparrman’s Voy. to Cape of G.H. I. 197The order or distribution of these huts in a craal or clan, is most frequently in the form of a circle with the doors inwards.
1790 tr. of F. Le Vaillant’s Trav. I. 159At the distance of a league, I found a Kraal, consisting of four huts, in which was a Hottentot family.
1790 Pennant in W. Paterson Narr. of Four Journeys 20The order or distribution of these huts in a craal or clan, is most frequently in the form of a circle with the doors inwards.
1795 C.R. Hopson tr. of C.P. Thunberg’s Trav. I. 164They encamp there with their cattle, and make huts (Kraals) of Mesembryanthemum bushes or of mats.
1798 Lady A. Barnard in Lord Lindsay Lives of Lindsays (1849) III. 434We have prevailed on each family to have a spot of ground round its craal to rear things on.
1801 Lady A. Barnard Jrnl (1973) 191Saw no house for five miles, and then another of the Landdrost’s, with kraals around it of Hottentots belonging to the farm.
1801 W.S. Van Ryneveld in G.M. Theal Rec. of Cape Col. (1898) IV. 90There are some who have Cattle and dwell with their families in Huts (kraalen).
1821 C.I. Latrobe Jrnl of Visit 240The kraal consisted of a circular building of reeds and rushes, covered with grass, a garden near the brook, and a small enclosure for cattle.
1827 G. Thompson Trav. 30They are divided into a great number of independant clans, or kraals.
1836 C.L. Stretch Journal.The population..amount to about 500 souls, who reside in the village; but the inmates of several kraals in its vicinity have also the benefit of instruction.
1841 B. Shaw Memorials 24Each tribe is again subdivided into clans or kraals, governed by petty chiefs.
1841 B. Shaw Memorials 242The chief Pato..has this year put that beyond all doubt, by fining several kraals for working on the Sabbath, which has had a very general effect throughout the tribe.
1856 G. Grey in Imp. Blue Bks Command Paper 2352–1857, 37Throughout Kaffraria the natives live along the ridges and slopes of the hills..in collections of huts termed kraals.
1860 W. Shaw Story of my Mission 317He was allowed by Gaika to fix his residence at a place at no great distance from the principal kraal or residence of that Chieftain.
1890 in Cape Law Jrnl VII. 226When I related what I knew to friends I met at the different kraals I visited, I would imagine I was before the judge.
1912 Ayliff & Whiteside Hist. of Abambo 81Their children were useful to the parents in many ways in kraal life.
1926 M. Nathan S. Afr. from Within 54The principal kraal was at Zombode, though the kraals at Lobamba (the residence of the Present Paramount Chief) and at Embekelweni have also been occupied.
1937 C. Birkby Zulu Journey 23These homes, merely thatched huts, are all grouped within the family enclosure — the kraal.
1948 V.M. Fitzroy Cabbages & Cream 126People living on real farms with a kraalful of piccanins.
1948 A. Paton Cry, Beloved Country 266Kraal,..a number of huts together, under the rule of the head of the family, who is of course subject to the chief.
1955 J.B. Shephard Land of Tikoloshe 14Because that pen or kraal is the social and often the religious centre of life in a Xhosa community, the whole homestead is usually referred to as ‘So-and-So’s kraal’.
1955 E.A. Ritter Shaka Zulu 2The single homestead, popularly called kraal, was the basic unit of the old Zulu State, a microcosm of the whole clan system.
1967 J.A. Broster Red Blanket ValleyThe average kraal consists of three huts, these being a store room and two living rooms.
1972 Std Encycl. of Sn Afr. VI. 453Among the Bantu peoples the kraal was the basic social and economic unit and had a personal significance.
1977 J. Sikakane Window on Soweto 15My grandfather..was the eldest son in the whole family ‘kraal’ unit.
1978 A. Elliott Sons of Zulu 97The word ‘kraal’ is the long established name for the homes of the country tribespeople of Southern Africa...It is a word which is used broadly and may mean the single hut of a newly married couple, the larger establishment of a many-wived man, or it may even be used to indicate a tribal village and also a byre.
1984 Frontline Mar. 22His kraal, his huts, were set alight, so showing his broken wife and their bewildered children they were no longer wanted in the village.
1992 E. Jayiya in Pace Sept. 15Another pretty woman has become the fifth wife in the kraal of King Goodwill Zwelethini.
1993 Weekend Mercury 2 Jan. 17Since becoming self-employed, he has built and furnished his own kraal.
c. With distinguishing epithet denoting a particular type of kraal: royal kraal, a homestead where the chief of an African people lives and holds court, or where his wife and children live; cf. great place (see great).
1926 M. Nathan S. Afr. from Within 36Invaded the country with three columns, Ulundi, the royal kraal, being their objective.
1958 J.J.R. Jolobe in R. Macnab Poets in S. Afr. 49A spear betrothal’s sign was left in court. Report was made it came from royal Kraal.
1971 Sunday Tribune 5 Dec. 23Thousands of Zulus accompanied the new Paramount Chief to the Royal Kraal for the traditional feast of oxen.
1975 Drum 22 Sept. 8Nobody in Swaziland, it seems, can give the exact number of queens and princes at the eight royal kraals.
1987 Drum Mar. 13The king then called his first meeting of the nation at the Royal kraal, Ludzidzini. Thousands of Swazis gathered at the royal place from the early hours of the morning.
3.
a. An enclosure, fold, or pen for domestic or other animals; crawl sense b. Also attributive. See also cattle-boma (boma noun1 sense 3 b), skutkraal.
1795 C.R. Hopson tr. of C.P. Thunberg’s Trav. I. 164A place or fold where sheep or cattle were enclosed in the open air was called a kraal.
1812 A. Plumptre tr. of H. Lichtenstein’s Trav. in Sn Afr. I. 107The Kraals for the horse and oxen are enclosed by a wall five or six feet high, those for the sheep are only enclosed by thorn hedges.
1827 T. Philipps Scenes & Occurrences 106Each flock had its separate kraal, fenced round with the thorny mimosa, piled high and impenetrable to wild beasts.
1834 W.H.B. Webster Narr. of Voy. to Sn Atlantic Ocean 267The kraal forms an important part of the establishment of every farmer; and each ox in it hath his name.
1843 T. Pringle Afr. Sketches 180He led us out towards the kraals or cattle-folds.
1876 T. Stubbs Reminiscences. II. 17Found a Kraal in the thick bush a lot of Cows and Calves in the Kraal.
1884 B. Adams Narr. (1941) 80At sunset all the cattle was brought in and enclosed in Kraals — large circles formed of the mimosa tree.
1898 J.F. Ingram Story of Afr. City 19As the morning advanced the kraal gates were opened, and the cattle driven forth.
1900 R. Kipling in J. Crwys-Williams S. Afr. Despatches (1989) 160We made a kraal for the two little ones — a kraal of thorn-bushes, so that they should not be bitten by anything.
1926 P. Smith Beadle (1929) 152Riding about the farm with mijnheer or visiting distant lands, camps and kraals with Frikkie.
1949 T. Mofolo Chaka Zulu 7The cattle will come here in great numbers and the kraals will soon be full.
1957 S. Schoeman Strike! 227The Ordinance and the Regulations inter alia prohibit:..The use of Nets or Kraals for the capture of fish except under licence.
1968 R. Griffiths Man of River 93Have I a kraal of fish, like a kraal of cattle or sheep or goats, that I can select some each day for slaughter?
1974 S. Afr. Panorama Dec. 5A supplementary ‘kraal’ system where some 20000 sheep can be accommodated.
1990 R. Stengel January Sun 13About two dozen cows and bulls..stand in the muddy kraal next to the barn. Kraal is the Afrikaans word for what an American cowboy would call a corral, a term with the same Latin root, currale, meaning ‘enclosure’.
b. With distinguishing epithet.
i. Designating enclosures for various kinds of domestic or other animals, as cattle-kraal, fish-kraal, goat-kraal, lamb-kraal, sheep-kraal, turtle-kraal, etc. See also beast-kraal (beast sense 2).
1817 G. Barker Journal. 19 Nov.Went to the cattle kraal to settle some differences among the people.
1827 T. Philipps Scenes & Occurrences 188A fire blazing on a little hill which we rode up to and discovered it to be a cattle Kraal.
1832 J. Collett Accounts. I. 64Whether krale, Lamb krale, Kid krale.
1841 B. Shaw Memorials 35The chief, at his death, is buried in the cattle kraal: his grave being filled up, the cattle are driven over it, in order that the place may not be discovered.
1843 J.C. Chase Cape of G.H. 150The field is generally at a convenient distance from the cattle kraal, from whence he procures a dressing for his land whenever it may be required.
1849 E.D.H.E. Napier Excursions in Sn Afr. I. 313At the door of the Calf kraal.
1903 R. Kipling Five Nations 153Giving and taking counsel each Over the cattle-kraal.
1924 S.G. Millin God’s Step-Children 292That was the cattle kraal, said Gert. And the smaller one next to it was the sheep kraal.
1953 U. Krige Dream & Desert 175Then walked slowly towards the sheepkraal where he slaughtered six sheep.
1958 L.G. Green S. Afr. Beachcomber 109Long, long ago the first beachcombers were..baiting their fish-kraals wherever the rocks allowed them to trap the shoals as the tides went out.
1958 L.G. Green S. Afr. Beachcomber 191Turtle kraals, built early last century in a creek where the tide ebbs and flows...The seamen..of old would often capture a hundred, two hundred turtles in a night and keep them in those kraals.
1961 T.V. Bulpin White Whirlwind 295There’ll be streets and theatres and fine shops standing on the site of his old goat kraal.
1981 Sunday Times 15 Mar. 11From cattle kraals to concrete parking lots...that is the changing world of the black mineworker.
1985 Fair Lady 6 Feb. 79A cattle kraal near the first set of highly efficient security gates lends a practical homely air to the place.
1993 Weekly Mail & Guardian 23 Dec. 15Although we do not have our cattle kraals in the township, traditional weddings still take place.
ii. Designating particular uses, as keep-kraal, a kraal for segregating or holding game; out-kraal, a kraal far from a farm homestead; skutkraal, see as a main entry; sorting kraal, a kraal for sorting and separating animals into groups; wash-kraal nonce, an open-air bathing enclosure.
1850 J.D. Lewins Diary. 5 Oct.Had a visit from Kew. To give him my wash-place. He will send poles for wash-kraal & make me also a spout.
1891 O.E.A. Schreiner Thoughts on S. Afr. (1923) 171Cattle to see to, or out-kraals to visit.
1894 O.E.A. Schreiner in S.C. Cronwright-Schreiner Life of Olive Schreiner (1924) 263Went to an out-kraal right away in the Hoek, a beautiful valley on the farm.
1971 Daily Dispatch 28 May 7The animals are trapped..and moved to ‘keep-kraals’ in the reserve.
1972 Grocott’s Mail 16 May 1There is a cattle dip as well as a sheep dip tank with sorting kraals.
c. Figurative and transferred sense In sense 3 a, but referring to a place used or inhabited by people, or to a grouping of people.
i. A contained area, an enclosure.
1853 Report ( 12 Dec.) in Cape of G.H. Annexures (1854) 74I was put into the kraal with the lunatics.
1896 Purvis & Biggs S. Afr. 169Each division was sub-divided into military kraals.
1905 P. Gibbon Vrouw Grobelaar 172How some have striven for the home kraal.
1961 T.V. Bulpin White Whirlwind 214They called the ship ‘the great kraal that pushes through the water’.
1961 H.F. Sampson White-Faced Huts 36I saw Vamsinya in a little kraal in the centre of the Court...The old gentleman who spoke kaffir put up two fingers of his right hand, and told me to speak the truth, so help me God!
ii. A social grouping based on economic, political, linguistic, ethnic, or other differences, and serving to separate people from one another.
1938 A.H. Murray in Star 16 July 10The Afrikaner kraal is being drawn so narrow that it is almost impossible to move within it. You must not dance and you must not play cards, [etc.].
1949 J.S. Franklin This Union 87Carefully shepherded in separate kraals, the one shut off and excluded from the language and culture of the other.
1953 P. Lanham Blanket Boy’s Moon 274The white man places all who do not possess white skins in one kraal, and calls them ‘non-Europeans’.
1969 J. Mervis in Sunday Times 24 Aug. 13The English Press are trying to chase the Afrikaners, like cattle, into separate ‘verligte’ and ‘verkrampte’ kraals.
1970 News/Check 4 Sept. 8Too long have English-speakers taken a superbly bland view of politics, and this has merely kept them (and consoled them) in their own kraal.
1979 F. Dike First S. African 18Are you a coloured? Hayi maan, your son has broken into my kraal.
1982 Pace June 66These women..are a permanent feature of this kraal designed exclusively for men.
1985 Argus 4 June 10So many whites are running into Mr P W Botha’s kraal.
1990 Siramo in Staffrider Vol.9 No.2, 79Let my right hand not forget you, Saf’ Afrika, the kraal of no mercy.
1991 F.G. Butler Local Habitation 100These Christian Nationalists were going to legislate all education into a monolithic master-plan of separate linguistic kraals.
d. combinations
kraal bird rare, the small bird Pytelia melba ;
kraalbos /-bɔs/, also kraal-bosch, [Afrikaans, bos (earlier South African Dutch bosch) bush], any of several shrubs used for making enclosures for livestock, especially Galenia africana and Eretia rigida; also kraal bosje [see boschje] ;
kraal fuel, Free State coal (see Free State adjectival phrase sense 2) ;
kraal manure, kraalmis /məs/, [Afrikaans, mis manure], dung taken from animal enclosures, dried, and used for fertilizing lands or gardens, or as building material; see also mis sense 1 ;
kraalward adverb, towards a kraal ;
kraal-wood, wood used for building rough animal enclosures.
1900 Stark & Sclater Birds of S. Afr. I. 90This Finch (sc. Pytelia melba) is found sparingly in Damara and Great Namaqua Land...Its favourite resort is low bush and old abandoned village fences, whence the Damaras call it the ‘Kraal bird’.
1795 C.R. Hopson tr. of C.P. Thunberg’s Trav. I. 310The Galenia Africana was known under the appellation of Kraal-bosch, and in some places was used for fences about the inclosures for their cattle.
1913 C. Pettman Africanderisms 280Kraal bosje, Galenia africana, and other plants.
1917 R. Marloth Dict. of Common Names of Plants 52Kraalbos,..A frequent bushy herb of the Karoo, eaten by stock in times of drought.
1932 Farming in S. Afr. Apr. 5 (Swart)Kraalbos was one of the plants sampled.
1966 C.A. Smith Common Names 310Kraalbos,..Eretia rigida...Frequently found round native kraals. The vernacular name has reference to the use made of the plants, or perhaps it has been prompted by the globose fruits, each of which suggests a bead (Afr.: kraal).
1972 Std Encycl. of Sn Afr. VI. 453Kraalbos, Two shrubs are known by this name.
1988 Le Roux & Schelpe Namaqualand 76Galenia african[a], Kraalbos...This plant..can be the only remaining species after the veld has been heavily overgrazed.
[1815 J. Mackrill Diary. 101Having preserved a Quantity of dry dung from my Kraal, I sow the dung..liberally over my land.]
1904 Argus Christmas Annual (Competitions Sect.) p.viiiWhere wood is scarce, people use coal..and are more fortunate than those who are compelled to use kraal fuel and pay well for it.
1905 E.A. Nobbs in Flint & Gilchrist Science in S. Afr. 383Facilities for the sale of..Kraal manure’ exists [sic] in the form of specially low charges for carriage by rail from the Karroo to the grain and fruit areas.
1905 Blackwood’s Mag. (U.K.) Mar. 389The room was floored with dagga — anthill earth brought to a high stage of hardness and mahogany-like polish by frequent dressings of bullock’s blood and kraal manure.
c1911 E. Glanville in S. Playne Cape Col. 661He was also manuring his ground with kraal manure and it was possible for him to put down 1000 acres of lucerne.
a1951 H.C. Bosman Willemsdorp (1977) 61With kraal manure in his trouser turn-ups.
1970 Grocott’s Mail 5 June 4 (advt)Sweetveld Kraal Manure (goat).
1987 E. Prov. Herald 13 Nov. 21 (advt)Manure: Fresh farm manure. Kraal manure R3 per grain bag.
1989 J. Hobbs Thoughts in Makeshift Mortuary 222Despite the day’s heat, the well dug-over soil is still damp under a thin layer of kraal manure.
1991 H. Hutchings in Weekend Post 9 Feb. (Leisure) 7The rose beds are covered with a thick mulch of kraal manure — as are all other beds of shrubs and flowers.
1977 M.P. Gwala Jol’iinkomo 42Let me drink from the khamba of the elders. Let me blow my nose into kraalmis.
1991 J. Farquharson in Sunday Times 10 Mar. 22Fine houses are razed; many shops with enchanting facades are being ‘done over’ and plastered with an apparent mixture of mud and kraalmis.
1947 F.C. Slater Sel. Poems 85The lowing cows plod kraalward with full udders.
1888 Cape Punch 7 Sept. 119Timber, firewood, wattles, kraal-wood, branch-wood.
1907 T.R. Sim Forests & Forest Flora 68No Kraalwood or Firewood shall be cut within twenty (20) yards of the edge of the Crown Forest.
4. In sense 1, 2 and 3: an element in place names.
1838 J.E. Alexander Exped. into Int. I. 41The site of the institution of Ebenezer was formerly called Doorn Kraal (thorn village or pen).
1875 J.J. Bisset Sport & War 10In the valleys near and about Buck Kraal.
1882 J. Nixon Among Boers 53We reached S’s camp at Vlak Kraal (pr Krawl) after a 30 miles drive.
1986 E. Prov. Herald 9 Apr. 1Lawaaikamp residents said Sandkraal is ‘further away from the white town’.
1988 O. Oberholzer Ariesfontein to ZuurfonteinThis idea came to me — a pictorial journey from Ariesfontein to Zuurfontein. Sure, I admit, it could have been place names ending in ‘spruit’ or ‘kraal’ or ‘berg’.
1989 P.E. Raper Dict. of Sn Afr. Place Names 217Hooge Kraal, Former name of Pacaltsdorp. Of Dutch origin, the name means ‘high-lying byre’, ‘village at a high elevation’.
5. combinations
kraal dog, kaffir dog sense 1;
kraalhead [English head leader], the head of a traditional African village; the head of a family or clan.
1970 Daily Dispatch 30 Jan. 14Kaiser the tribal terrier — once a mangy kraal dog with his ribs showing.
1982 E. Prov. Herald 29 Apr. 13Each selected a kraal dog, often the most vociferous.
1911 M.S. Evans Black & White in S.E. Afr. 67The wives take their status according to ancient custom, and both they and their children are under the direct rule of the kraal head.
1946 Tribal Natives & Trade Unionism (Tvl Chamber of Mines) 6The tribal pattern is the Chief, the Induna, the headman and the kraal head.
1959 L. Longmore Dispossessed 113The will of the kraal-head was tempered and, to a great extent, influenced by the individual and collective views of his wife or wives, and the male adult members of his household.
1962 W.D. Hammond-Tooke Bhaca Soc. 36Informants insisted that if a kraalhead so wished he could select a son from any of his minor houses if there was no heir in the great house.
1967 O. Walker Hippo Poacher 71He must pay his respects to the kraal-head.
1978 A. Elliott Sons of Zulu 45It is tribal custom that when a kraal head or senior man dies, then his family keeps a rigid ritual of mourning in which they may not, for a time, till their lands, eat certain foods or do certain types of work.
1985 Platzky & Walker Surplus People 146A press statement..listed convictions for ‘291 kraal heads (2246 souls)’ who were squatting illegally on their former land.
A traditional African village or extended settlement; crawla; stat1;
The community inhabiting a traditional village.
A hut or cluster of huts occupied by one family or clan, either standing alone or as part of a traditional African village; the labourers’ huts on a farm; homestead2; werf2 a;
royal kraal, a homestead where the chief of an African people lives and holds court, or where his wife and children live;
An enclosure, fold, or pen for domestic or other animals; crawlb. Also attributive.
Designating enclosures for various kinds of domestic or other animals, as cattle-kraal, fish-kraal, goat-kraal, lamb-kraal, sheep-kraal, turtle-kraal, etc. See also beast-kraalbeast2.
Designating particular uses, as keep-kraal, a kraal for segregating or holding game; out-kraal, a kraal far from a farm homestead; skutkraal, see as a main entry; sorting kraal, a kraal for sorting and separating animals into groups; wash-kraalnonce, an open-air bathing enclosure.
A contained area, an enclosure.
A social grouping based on economic, political, linguistic, ethnic, or other differences, and serving to separate people from one another.
the small bird Pytelia melba
, any of several shrubs used for making enclosures for livestock, especially Galenia africana and Eretia rigida; also kraal bosjesee boschje
, Free State coalFree Stateadjectival phrase2
, dung taken from animal enclosures, dried, and used for fertilizing lands or gardens, or as building material;
, towards a kraal
an element in place names.
Derivatives:
Hence kraalful noun.
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