DSAE test file

African, noun1 and adjective1

Origin:
English
A. noun
1. A black person of African descent; cf. black noun sense 1 b. See also Asian, coloured, white noun sense 2. Also attributive.
Note:
‘African’ was never an official term during the apartheid era, but was used (until replaced by ‘black’) by black people of themselves, and by those who opposed apartheid.
Note:
See note at black noun sense 1 b.
1696 J. Ovington Voy. to Suratt 54The Art of Poysoning is what these Africans do very commonly exceed in, and to which they are generally propense upon any occasional Quarrel or Abuse.
1990 J. McClurg in Star 11 Sept. 11Over the years we have seen ‘native’..go through ‘Bantu’ and ‘African’ to end up as ‘black’.
2. Any person born or living in Africa.
1786 G. Forster tr. of A. Sparrman’s Voy. to Cape of G.H. I. 59I arrived at the house of farmer Van der Spoei, who was a widower, and an African born.
1990 K. Nhlapo in New African 3 Sept. 10As Africans (I use this term in an inclusive sense) we must perpetuate our own true culture.
B. adjective
1.
a. Of or pertaining to Africa; applied both to black people (as in general English) and, especially in the past, to persons born or living in Africa, but of European extraction; characteristic of, or pertaining to, such persons; Afrikander adjective sense 2.
1786 G. Forster tr. of A. Sparrman’s Voy. to Cape of G.H. I. 16The Europeans are apt to conceive rather unfavourable ideas of the politeness of the African colonists.
1990 Sunday Times 30 Sept. 20President De Klerk skilfully and subtly cast himself as an African leader.
b. Special collocations
i. In the names of plants and animals:
African ant-eater, see ant-eater sense 1;
African oak obsolete, stinkwood sense a;
African sandalwood, see sandalwood;
African tiger obsolete, the tiger (sense 1), Panthera pardus;
African wattle, the huilboom, Peltophorum africanum.
1811 R. Stopford in G.M. Theal Rec. of Cape Col. (1901) VIII. 25This timber called Stinkwood or African Oak has been found to be in many respects equal to the English Oak for all purposes of Ship Building.
1988 A. Hall-Martin et al. Kaokoveld 14Other tree species associated with the termitaria are..buffalo thorn..and African wattle.
ii.
African Dutch (obsolete), frequently used attributively: (a) Dutch noun sense 2 a; (b) The African Dutch (plural): the Dutch (Dutch noun sense 1).
1812 A. Plumptre tr. of H. Lichtenstein’s Trav. in Sn Afr. (1928) I. 93The concise, yet expressive, African Dutch language, in which the relation was given.
1900 W.S. Churchill London to Ladysmith 135This Boer farmer was a very typical character, and represented to my mind all that was best and noblest in the African Dutch character.
2.
a. Used of a black person, especially, in the South African context, as opposed to a ‘coloured’, Asian, or white person; of or pertaining to black people. Cf. black adjective sense 1.
1832 Graham’s Town Jrnl 10 Aug. 127To hire, an African Slave Girl who understands all descriptions of House work.
1990 T. Daniels in New African 3 Sept. 2The fighting broke out last weekend between supporters of local rival soccer clubs, one primarily African and the other mainly coloured.
b. Special collocations
African beer, tshwala sense a i;
African print, German print (see German). Also attributive.
1974 Drum 8 Aug. 27The BIC has the monopoly for brewing and distributing African beer in all major townships.
1986 Fair Lady 5 Mar. 55The white trouser suit she is wearing,..combined with a vivid African print blouse and traditional beaded headdress and necklace.
A black person of African descent;
Any person born or living in Africa.
Of or pertaining to Africa; applied both to black people (as in general English) and, especially in the past, to persons born or living in Africa, but of European extraction; characteristic of, or pertaining to, such persons; Afrikanderadjective2.
Dutchnoun2 a;
the DutchDutchnoun1.
Used of a black person, especially, in the South African context, as opposed to a ‘coloured’, Asian, or white person; of or pertaining to black people.
Derivatives:
Hence (sense A 1) Africanerdom noun nonce, black African people collectively. Cf. Afrikanerdom.
1941 A. Maqelepo in Bantu World 15 Feb. 5There is an unfortunate position created today for many who are not Africans but claiming a place in Africanerdom.

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16961990