DSAE test file

tshwala, noun

Forms:
α. chali, chaloaShow more chali, chaloa, chuala, chuallah, chullah, chwala, joila, jowalla, jwarlar, schwala, tjaloa, tjoalla, tjwala, tschwala, tshwala, tswala, twala twyala, twala ’twyala, tyalla, tyalli, tywala twyala, tywala ’twyala;
β. itywala, outchuallaShow more itywala, outchualla, outchuella, utshuala, utshwala, uTyala, utyala, utyalla, utyalwa, utywala.
Origin:
Zulu, Xhosa, SothoShow more Zulu utshwala, Xhosa utywala (formerly utyalwa); however, in some quotations the writers may be using the Sotho synonyms (see joala).
a. i. A thick home-brewed beer made traditionally among African people from fermented sorghum millet and water; any commercially-prepared equivalent; African beer, see African adjective1 sense 2 b; bojalwa sense 2 a; ijuba sense b; jabula; jabulani sense b; joala; mtombo sense 1 b; ndambula; sorghum beer, see sorghum sense 2. See also leting, mabela, umqombothi. ii. A similar beer made of maize; cf. mahewu, maiza. In these senses also called Bantu beer or kaffir beer (sense a), both of which are offensive, and KB.
α.
1803 J.T. Van der Kemp in Trans. of Missionary Soc. I. 438The Caffree corn is, as I think, a kind of millet, but grows from seven to ten feet high...The corn..is eaten boiled..; they likewise malt it, after which it is boiled, and the decoction fermented. This drink they call tjaloa.
1994 M. Roberts tr. of J.A. Wahlberg’s Trav. Jrnls 1838–56 50In the evening they drank Tjoalla (Kaffer drink, intoxicating).
β.
1836 A.F. Gardiner Journey to Zoolu Country 30A large bowl of outchualla (native beer) was sent to my hut by order of Dingaan.
1988 P. Du Plooy Informant, PietermaritzburgThe origins of shebeens lie in the gathering of men at the homestead to drink utshwala brewed by women.
b. rare. Loosely, any liquor; bojalwa sense 2 b; also called Bantu beer (offensive), KB.
α.
1962 J. Taylor Tsotsi Style’. (lyrics)Me busy making money mighty fast, Selling the white man’s tshwala.
1964 G. Gordon Four People 109What would you do, if you were a Native like us? How would you get your tywala?
β.
1945 F.C. Slater New Centenary Bk of S. Afr. Verse 230Utywala, Xhosa for Kaffir beer; the term is also applied to spirits.
A thick home-brewed beer made traditionally among African people from fermented sorghum millet and water; any commercially-prepared equivalent; African beer, see Africanadjective2 b; bojalwa2 a; ijubab; jabula; jabulanib; joala; mtombo1 b; ndambula; sorghum beer, see sorghum2.
A similar beer made of maize; cf. mahewu, maiza. In these senses also called Bantu beer or kaffir beer (sense a), both of which are offensive, and KB.
Loosely, any liquor; bojalwa2 b; also called Bantu beer (offensive), KB.

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18031994