homeland, noun

Origin:
English, Afrikaans, DutchShow more Special sense of general English homeland the land which is one’s home, one’s native land, probably influenced by the official Afrikaans equivalent tuisland (tuis at home, ‘at ease’, from Dutch thuis, blend of te at + huis house, home).
historical
1. Any of ten quasi-autonomous regions — one for each of the officially recognized black peoples of South Africa — which, during the apartheid era, became or were intended to become self-governing (or ‘independent’) states, and which for a time were the only areas in which blacks born in South Africa were legally entitled to claim citizenship and permanent residence; bantustan sense 2; national state sense 1; stan (see noun at -stan suffix); cf. Blackstan (see -stan). Also attributive, and transferred sense, denoting any similar ethnically-based region. See also city state, self-governing, reserve, separate development, territorial authority, tribal authority.
Note:
The creation of ten ethnic ‘homelands’ was the main feature of grand apartheid; Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda, and Ciskei later became ‘independent’ states, funded by South Africa, before the policy was abandoned; Gazankulu, KaNgwane, KwaNdebele, KwaZulu, Lebowa, and Qwaqwa had, for a time, a certain local autonomy within South Africa. These ‘states’ were recognized by few foreign governments. See also TBVC.
Note:
Although all ‘homelands’ were re-incorporated into South Africa in 1994, the word is still sometimes used of any area which was formerly independent or semi-autonomous.
1959 Memorandum: Promotion of Bantu Self Govt Bill 8The objects can be outlined as follows...The creation of homogeneous administrative areas for the Bantu by uniting the members of each Bantu national group in one national unit, concentrated in one coherent homeland where possible.
1960 A.J. Luthuli in H. Spottiswoode S. Afr.: Rd Ahead 114White South Africa with only 3,000,000 Whites has 87 per cent of the land, the rest is supposed to be the homeland of 10,000,000 Africans.
1971 Time 13 Dec. 23One of the 29 scattered patches of land that make up the Zulu Bantustan, a separate homeland set up by the apartheid government in Pretoria.
1974 R. Small in Argus 4 July (Woman’s Argus) 5Sometimes I have visions of a Coloured Homeland.
1974 L.M. Mangope Place for All (c1979) 134The Black man sees in the Homeland concept a positive acknowledgement and vindication of his particular stamp of Black identity.
1977 Cape Times 29 Mar. 2New homelands legislation introduced in Parliament yesterday will provide for ‘internally autonomous’ countries with legislative authority over all internal affairs.
1977 Optima Vol.3, 28It is very doubtful if many of the homeland leaders have particularly strong bases of electoral support given the widespread rejection of the homelands concept by Africans.
1980 Rand Daily Mail 23 Aug.What were once the ‘reserves’ became ‘Bantustans’, then the ‘homelands’; now they are ‘national states’.
1983 J.S. Mojapelo in Rand Daily Mail 13 Jan. 2More than three-quarters of the total population of the homelands of Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda and Ciskei (TBVC) lived outside the four states on a continuous basis during 1980.
1989 P. Cull in E. Prov. Herald 7 Oct. 4The National Party’s first attempt at a constitutional solution to the ‘race question’ was the Verwoerdian ideal of grand apartheid with Africans all safely stowed away in bantustans. This ‘imposition’ phase resulted in the creation of four ‘independent’ homelands — one of which was a geographic farce, and all of which were riddled with corruption and economically dependent on South Africa.
1990 Weekend Mail 28 Sept. 2The visionaries of the new white homelands have retreated to much diminished claims.
1992 Weekly Mail 24 Apr. 8Are the citizens of the homelands, who were never asked if they wanted independence, now entitled to vote on whether they want to return to South Africa?
1994 Natal Witness 3 Jan. 2Chairman Yasser Arafat..likened Israel’s self-rule plans for Palestinians to South Africa’s black homelands or bantustans.
2. Special Combinations
homeland policy, homelands policy, the National Party’s plan of creating self-governing black states;
homeland system, homelands system, the homeland policy as implemented.
1974 Post 28 July 2It was unanimously agreed to challenge Mr Sam Solomon the elected Labourite for Newclare to resign his CRC seat and re-contest it on his ‘homeland’ policy.
1977 S. Afr. Panorama May 11Politically, the Black homelands policy will have to be pursued with all possible vigour as a means of devolving and decentralizing power among the Black peoples.
1987 A. Amaphixiphixi in Frontline Feb. 15Hasten on the final collapse of the shambles of the homeland policy.
1993 Africa S. & E. July 35South Africa’s pernicious homeland policy.
1983 Pace Oct. 54The homeland system has been used as a reason for excluding Africans from taking part in South Africa’s law-making process.
1987 New Nation 19 Nov. 4If my party wins the next elections, it will negotiate with Pretoria from a position of power to declare the homeland system null and void. We want one unitary South Africa and not bits and pieces of land called homelands.
1990 Drum May 23The clamour for the dissolution of the homeland system is gathering such momentum that Transkei, Ciskei and Venda, three so-called independent states, are to hold referendums to elicit public opinion on the issue.
1992 Natal Witness 6 Nov. 2The minister of constitutional development..yesterday rejected the notion that the government wants to retain the present homeland system by way of regionalism in a new constitution.
Any of ten quasi-autonomous regions — one for each of the officially recognized black peoples of South Africa — which, during the apartheid era, became or were intended to become self-governing (or ‘independent’) states, and which for a time were the only areas in which blacks born in South Africa were legally entitled to claim citizenship and permanent residence; bantustan2; national state1; stan (see noun at -stansuffix);
Derivatives:
Hence (nonce) homelander noun, one supporting the idea of a homeland.
1986 Sunday Times 20 July 18The white homeland prophets are hard at work..trying to secure the town (sc. Morgenzon) as the growth point for their whites-only Oranjeland...Apart from the ultra-right-wing white homelanders, few people know where Morgenzon is.
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