reserve, noun

Also with initial capital.
U.S. EnglishShow more Probably U.S. English, ‘land set aside for North American Indian groups’ (later reservation).
obs. except in historical contexts
(An extensive area of) land set aside for occupation by black people under largely rural conditions; location sense 2; Native area, see Native noun sense 1 c; scheduled area, see scheduled. Formerly often in the offensive phrase Native reserve. Also frequently the reserves, used collectively. See also homeland sense 1, Trust.
Although laws placing racially-based restrictions on land occupation have been repealed, the areas once so restricted are still referred to by some as ‘reserves’.
1851 Godlonton & Irving Narr. of Kaffir War of 1850–51 232They fell upon two Fingo kraals in the ‘Reserve’..and completely destroyed them.
1852 M.B. Hudson S. Afr. Frontier Life 255He inhabits a part of what is termed ‘the Native Reserve,’ a district of territory lying between the Kraai River and the Orange River, and appropriated to the use of Natives.
1859 Cape Town Weekly Mag. 11 Feb. 39Mr Austen, the superintendent of the Native Reserve in the Wittebergen, met field-cornet Olivier on Thursday last.
1903 E.F. Knight S. Afr. after War 219The Kaffirs have their huge reserves, always in the most fertile regions, where they can settle at will and pay no rent.
1912 Ayliff & Whiteside Hist. of Abambo 76In the Transkei, the Fingos live in ‘Reserves’, allotted to the sole occupation of Natives, with the exception of a few European traders, and in which farming offers them congenial employment.
c1936 S. & E. Afr. Yr Bk & Guide 97In some areas, particularly the Native Reserves in the old colony and western Free State, the damage done may prove irretrievable.
1936 R.J.M. Goold-Adams S. Afr. To-Day & To-Morrow 31To segregate the black races from the white is the whole object of the formation of native reserves, ‘released areas’, non-native land-holding country and so forth.
1939 J.K. Godfrey in Outspan 24 Nov. 71Today the Native in the reserve has arrived at the cross roads. The old and the new jostle cheek by cheek.
1941 Bantu World 15 Mar. 4The ambition of the New African whether in urban areas or in the reserves, is to possess the good and higher things of civilisation.
1943 J. Burger Black Man’s Burden 251The result of segregation in South Africa is to turn the Reserves into national slums and the locations into urban slums.
1948 Press Digest No.13, 80If apartheid were fully carried through and industries set up in the reserves, not only would the native market be lost to S.A., but industries in the reserves might also be able to produce more cheaply through paying lower wages than were being paid in the European areas.
1949 E. Hellmann Handbk on Race Rel. 171Under existing laws in South Africa the ownership of land by Africans is limited to the areas known as Native reserves..and within them ownership in most cases is by tribal tenure and not by private title.
1951 O. Walker Shapeless Flame 272The kraals of the native reserves lying close to the road.
1955 C.W. De Kiewiet in C.G. Haines Africa Today 210Geographic apartheid might be more feasible if taken together the reserves could maintain the native population.
1955 E. de S. Brummer in Pol. Science Quarterly Sept. 369One step toward this goal should be the gradual extension of home rule to the Natives in the areas they now occupy, namely the Reserves, or, as some say, ‘the Bantu Fatherland.’
1955 E. de S. Brummer in Pol. Science Quarterly Sept. 373Some persons in the government hope to meet this problem by offering inducements..and exerting pressures upon new industries to locate near the Reserves.
1960 D.P. de V. Graaff Policy of Ordered Advance (handbill)It is futile to imagine that we can ever have total racial segregation as Dr. Verwoerd implies. We will always have a large settled, Native population in the White areas with no roots in the reserves.
1961 D. Rooke Lover for Estelle 12We arrived at the store which was on the edge of the Native Reserve.
1962 L.E. Neame Hist. of Apartheid 74In view of their possession of their own national home in the Reserves, Natives in the European areas can make no claim to political rights.
1963 Wilson & Mafeje Langa 3What drives men to town is poverty: they must earn or their families in the reserves go hungry.
1968 J. Lelyveld in Cole & Flaherty House of Bondage 8Eventually — or so the theory of apartheid, at its most preposterous, holds, the entire urban black population will melt back into tribal reserves.
1968 Cole & Flaherty House of Bondage 98There are three tribal colleges for blacks, administered by whites, and located only in the Bantustan reserves.
1971 Rand Daily Mail 6 Mar. 10All believe that the tribal reserves should be energetically developed.
1971 G. Routh in B. Sachs Herman Charles Bosman 265The action took place partly in a Native reserve and partly in the nearby town.
1980 J. Cock Maids & Madams 309Wolpe..points to the fact that the extended family in the Reserve fulfils ‘social security’ functions necessary for the reproduction of the migrant work force.
1980 J. Sharp in Boonzaier & Sharp S. Afr. Keywords 92The reserves in South Africa were long thought to provide employers, and in particular the mining industry, with a source of cheap labour...After the reserves had been formally proclaimed in 1913, mining capital certainly impressed upon Botha and Smuts’s South African Party the importance of maintaining the reserves, and of seeing that they did not decline into absolute stagnation.
1990 Conserva Jan. 7Since 1913, the first of the Land Acts which established the so-called ‘Native Reserves’, the whole pattern of rural agriculture has changed radically.
1990 R. Stengel January Sun 27Homeland is the term used by the government for what was once known as ‘reserves’ and ‘Bantustans’, supposedly sovereign countries which were created to accommodate all black South Africans and remove them from white urban areas.
(An extensive area of) land set aside for occupation by black people under largely rural conditions; location2; Native area, see Nativenoun1 c; scheduled area, see scheduled. Formerly often in the offensive phrase Native reserve. Also frequently the reserves, used collectively. See also homeland1, Trust.
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