separate development, noun phrase

Origin:
South African English, English, AfrikaansShow more Either formed in South African English from English separate + development, or translation of Afrikaans official terminology, aparte ontwikkeling.
historical
The National Party government’s policy of creating a separate ‘homeland’ (intended to become a self-governing state) for each of the officially-defined black ‘nations’ in South Africa, reserving for whites, ‘coloureds’, and Indians the right to South African citizenship, and to permanent residence in ‘white’ areas of the country; often considered a euphemism for ‘apartheid’. Also attributive. Cf. grand apartheid, multinationalism (see multinational). See also apartheid sense 1, homeland sense 1, separate freedoms.
Note:
Introduced in the 1950s, this policy was abandoned in the late 1980s.
1955 Report of Commission for Socio-Economic Dev. of Bantu Areas (UG61–1955) 105Objections to the Policy of Separate Development.
1956 M. Rogers Black Sash 142The demarcation of the country into separate European and non-European areas for the twin purposes of residence and separate development involves a change so revolutionary as to be almost impossible in practice.
1962 Sunday Times (London) in S. Afr. Speaks 4The map shows the Transkei, Homeland of the Xhosa people who will attain self-rule in 1963 in terms of the policy of separate development.
1966 Cape Argus 8 Apr. 14Nationalist speakers with an eye to doubts about Bantustans..are now prone to claim that separate development is being more accepted abroad.
1970 Rand Daily Mail 14 Nov. 4‘With the Government’s brand of separate development there is plenty of separation but not much development,’ said Mr. Winchester.
1971 Sunday Times 9 May 12The disclosure that, after 23 years of apartheid, there are more Africans in the White areas than in the Black, shows that the Nationalist policy of ‘separate development’ cannot be implemented.
1971 Nat. Geog. Mag. Sept. 773‘Why do you participate in the separate development scheme?’ I asked. ‘Because only within its framework can I help my people,’ Chief Buthelezi replied.
1980 A.P. Brink Mapmakers (1983) 202We have followed the semantic metamorphosis of ‘apartheid’ into ‘separate development’ into ‘parallel development’ into ‘equal opportunity’ into ‘constellation of states’...In an authoritarian society semantics is a very subtle game.
1985 Platzky & Walker Surplus People 68Chapter 5, which considers the shaping of the ‘Separate Development policy’ (as the Nationalists like to call apartheid), starts by tracing the increasingly sophisticated elaboration of the Group Areas and (especially) the bantustan programme after 1948.
1986 P. Maylam Hist. of Afr. People 170The official ideology of the Nationalist government has been based on the theory of ‘separate development’...In terms of this theory South Africa’s population is..comprised of..a whole set of ethnic minorities...Each African group should be allotted its own ‘homeland’ where it can develop culturally, politically and economically along its own lines.
1991 F.G. Butler Local Habitation 200Creon becomes Kroon, the leader of an (imaginary) Trek determined to establish an all-white republic on separate development lines like those of the ruling Nationalist Party.
The National Party government’s policy of creating a separate ‘homeland’ (intended to become a self-governing state) for each of the officially-defined black ‘nations’ in South Africa, reserving for whites, ‘coloureds’, and Indians the right to South African citizenship, and to permanent residence in ‘white’ areas of the country; often considered a euphemism for ‘apartheid’. Also attributive.
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19551991