umpakati, noun

Forms:
amapagate, iphakathiShow more singular amapagate, iphakathi, umpagate; singular and plural amapakati, pakati, umpakati; plural amapagati, amapakate, amapakatie, amaphakathi, mapakathi, pacati, pagaki, pagate, pagatees, pagati, umpugarties.
Also with initial capital.
Plurals:
usually amapakati.
Origin:
Xhosa, ZuluShow more Xhosa and Zulu umphakathi, also iphakathi councillor (plural amaphakathi), noun prefix um- (or i-) + phakathi inside, within. For notes on singular and plural forms, see ama-, i-, um-.
In traditional Nguni societies: a. A member of the council, or inner circle of advisers, of a chief; heemraad sense 3; cf. induna (sense 1 a). b. Such a council; collectively, its members. Also figurative.
1803 J.T. Van der Kemp in Trans. of Missionary Soc. I. 436He (sc. Ngqika) has his counsellors (pagati) who inform him of the sentiments of his people, and his Captains admonish him with great freedom and fidelity, when he abuses his authority.
1823 W. Shaw in C. Sadler Never a Young Man (1967) 54I was obliged to ask the chief to appoint one of his men as a sort of sentry or police officer. This was readily granted, and an old umpagate..with great good-will and a few hard strokes..soon dispersed the crowd.
1833 Graham’s Town Jrnl 4 Apr. 2A demand has been made to the Amapakate (or Counsel) of Hintza, for prompt attention to the late circumstances.
1834 T. Pringle Afr. Sketches 225One of his counsellors (amapagati) instantly suggested that the opportunity which now presented itself for striking a decisive blow was too good to be lost.
1851 R. Gray Jrnls of Two Visitations II. 157Kama has sent one of his Pacati to his brother Pato to entreat him to have nothing to do with the prophet or with war.
1858 Cape Monthly Mag. IV. Sept. 165This council, the members of which are called Amapakati (literally, ‘middle ones’), is composed of commoners, who, by their courage in war, or their skill in debate on public questions..have acquired great popular influence, and are thus qualified either to sustain or control the power of the chiefs.
1866 W.C. Holden Past & Future 333Next to the Royal family in order and office are the amapakati; or, Great Council of the Nation. The members of this council are persons of the greatest intelligence and influence, selected from different parts of the tribe, some of whom are always at the ‘great place’, and the whole may be called on great state occasions.
1870 C. Hamilton Life & Sport in S.-E. Afr. 191The shrewdness of the ‘Amapakati’, or Kaffir advocate.
1901 H. Smith Autobiog. II. 75If he is very rich, the chief and his pagati, or councillors, are satisfied with ‘eating him up’ (the native expression for having all one’s property confiscated under an accusation of witchcraft).
1937 F.B. Young They Seek a Country 515Never in all my life have I seen a finer body of men than the older warriors — the Umpakati, they call them.
1956 F.C. Metrowich Valiant but Once 17This intelligence having been brought to a chief..one of his counsellors (pagati) instantly suggested that the opportunity which now presented itself for striking a decisive blow was too good to be lost.
1968 F.C. Metrowich Frontier Flames 113He proved to be a political capture of some importance. On being interrogated he admitted that he was an amapakati (councillor) of the Galeka Paramount Chief.
1976 A. Delius Border 96Those men in the middle are the councillors, the Amapakati...They’re arguing now to see what sort of bargain they can make not to give up the Chief.
1979 M. Matshoba Call Me Not a Man 172His had been a warrior’s body when he fought the frontier wars in the prime of his life. It was these wars which had won him promotion to iphakathi to the paramount chief.
1991 F.G. Butler Local Habitation 162The high priest would rise and try to convince the disbelieving worshippers that he and his amapagati had indeed secured the best beast available.
A member of the council, or inner circle of advisers, of a chief; heemraad3;
Such a council; collectively, its members.
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18031991