amapagate, iphakathiShow more singularamapagate, iphakathi, umpagate; singular and pluralamapakati, pakati, umpakati; pluralamapagati, amapakate, amapakatie, amaphakathi, mapakathi, pacati, pagaki, pagate, pagatees, pagati, umpugarties. Also with initial capital.
Xhosa, ZuluShow more Xhosa and Zulu umphakathi, also iphakathi councillor (plural amaphakathi), noun prefix um- (or i-) + phakathi inside, within. For notes on singular and plural forms, see ama-, i-, um-.
In traditional Nguni societies: a.A member of the council, or inner circle of advisers, of a chief; heemraad sense 3;cf. induna (sense 1 a).b.Such a council; collectively, its members.Also figurative.
1803J.T. Van der Kemp inTrans. of Missionary Soc.I. 436He (sc. Ngqika) has his counsellors (pagati) who inform him of the sentiments of his people, and his Captains admonish him with great freedom and fidelity, when he abuses his authority.
1823W. Shaw inC. SadlerNever a Young Man (1967) 54I was obliged to ask the chief to appoint one of his men as a sort of sentry or police officer. This was readily granted, and an old umpagate..with great good-will and a few hard strokes..soon dispersed the crowd.
1833Graham’s Town Jrnl 4 Apr. 2A demand has been made to the Amapakate (or Counsel) of Hintza, for prompt attention to the late circumstances.
1834T. PringleAfr. Sketches 225One of his counsellors (amapagati) instantly suggested that the opportunity which now presented itself for striking a decisive blow was too good to be lost.
1851R. GrayJrnls of Two VisitationsII. 157Kama has sent one of his Pacati to his brother Pato to entreat him to have nothing to do with the prophet or with war.
1858Cape Monthly Mag.IV. Sept. 165This council, the members of which are called Amapakati (literally, ‘middle ones’), is composed of commoners, who, by their courage in war, or their skill in debate on public questions..have acquired great popular influence, and are thus qualified either to sustain or control the power of the chiefs.
1866W.C. HoldenPast & Future 333Next to the Royal family in order and office are the amapakati; or, Great Council of the Nation. The members of this council are persons of the greatest intelligence and influence, selected from different parts of the tribe, some of whom are always at the ‘great place’, and the whole may be called on great state occasions.
1901H. SmithAutobiog.II. 75If he is very rich, the chief and his pagati, or councillors, are satisfied with ‘eating him up’ (the native expression for having all one’s property confiscated under an accusation of witchcraft).
1937F.B. YoungThey Seek a Country 515Never in all my life have I seen a finer body of men than the older warriors — the Umpakati, they call them.
1956F.C. MetrowichValiant but Once 17This intelligence having been brought to a chief..one of his counsellors (pagati) instantly suggested that the opportunity which now presented itself for striking a decisive blow was too good to be lost.
1968F.C. MetrowichFrontier Flames 113He proved to be a political capture of some importance. On being interrogated he admitted that he was an amapakati (councillor) of the Galeka Paramount Chief.
1976A. DeliusBorder 96Those men in the middle are the councillors, the Amapakati...They’re arguing now to see what sort of bargain they can make not to give up the Chief.
1979M. MatshobaCall Me Not a Man 172His had been a warrior’s body when he fought the frontier wars in the prime of his life. It was these wars which had won him promotion to iphakathi to the paramount chief.
1991F.G. ButlerLocal Habitation 162The high priest would rise and try to convince the disbelieving worshippers that he and his amapagati had indeed secured the best beast available.
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