entuna, indoonaShow more Also entuna, indoona, intuna, nduna, tuna.
usually indunas, but also (infrequently) isinduna, izinduna, lintuna, zinduna, zintuna.
Xhosa, ZuluShow more Xhosa and Zulu (plural izinduna).
a. Especially in traditional Zulu society: a headman, councillor, or officer under a chief, often responsible for overseeing the affairs of a district made up of a number of villages.Cf. letona. See also umnumzana sense 1 a.
1835A. SmithDiary (1940) II. 79Masalacatzie has two grades amongst his chiefs, viz.: numzan and tuna, the former the highest.
1836N. IsaacsTrav. (1937) II. 108Our conversation was interrupted by the arrival of the induna, Amastanger, with seven head of cattle, which the king gave to me.
1836 inD.J. KotzeLett. of American Missionaries (1950) 129Under the king there are a number of officers of different grades, called Zintuna. Intuna is the singular. Every town is directly under the control of some Intuna.
1837F. OwenDiary (1926) 28A regiment is stationed at each town under several Indoonas or Captains.
1846R. MoffatMissionary Labours 141He was a man of rank, and what was called an Entuna (an officer,) who wore on his head the usual badge of dignity.
1857J. ShooterKafirs of Natal 322The English settlers proceeded with their natives against the kraals of Sotobe and another in-duna, situate between the Mooi River and Tugela.
1946P. AbrahamsMine Boy (1954) 55In front of the long column marched an induna, a mine policeman, whose duty it was to keep order among the boys...The indunas all carried knob-kerries and assagais.
1953P. LanhamBlanket Boy’s Moon 116A big factory, where he had obtained the job of Induna or head-boy.
1962A.P. CartwrightGold Miners 221There are, too, the indunas who act as liaison officers between the compound manager and the tribal groups.
1971Sunday Tribune 14 Nov. 6We loaded sacks of mielies on to a lorry. The induna..kicked and hit us all the time.
1972Star 24 Mar. 27Mr Makwena is an ‘induna’ train marshaller — one of the first Africans to be trained at Elsburg shunting yards.
1978Voice 13 Dec. 9His father was an induna at the Modder East mine.
1980E. Prov. Herald 29 Aug. 9Mr Godlo..worked at Jaggersfontein mines (today’s Welkom), as induna-clerk from the age of 20.
1980M. Lipton inOptimaVol.29No.2, 166There have..been reports of homosexuality within the compounds, said to be widespread among the long-serving and influential indunas who use their position to demand favours from younger men.
1984L. Mshengu inStaffriderVol.6No.1, 26Indunas are workers but they do not go along with the workers’ struggle. They..tend to side very much with the employers.
1986J. ConynghamArrowing of Cane 11A black induna, dressed in a navy blue overall and not in the hessian shift of a cutter, walks towards me as I near the labourers.
1987S. Nyaka inWeekly Mail 13 Mar. 2The South African Railway and Harbour Workers’ Union (Sarhwu) has vowed to destroy the compound housing system, migrant labour and the induna system.
1990G. SlovoTies of Blood 30The indunas — black overseers who did the white man’s dirty work, their knobkerries and assegais always at hand.
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