heemraad, noun

heemrad, heimraadShow more Also heemrad, heimraad, hemraad, hemrad, humraad, and with initial capital.
heemraaden, heemraads, heemraden.
South African Dutch, DutchShow more South African Dutch, from Dutch, ‘dike-reeve’, heem village, home + raad council.
1. In historical contexts. One of a court of local officials appointed to assist a landdrost in the judicial and civil administration of the district under his control. See also landdrost sense 1.
Heemraden, of whom there were usually six in each district, were chosen from among the most prominent members of the community, and were not remunerated. One of their most important functions was that of sitting as assessors in court cases presided over by a landdrost. The office was done away with when magistrates replaced landdrosts in December, 1827.
1795 in G.M. Theal Rec. of Cape Col. (1897) I. 209The Burgher War Officer..and two Heemraden named Hendrik Meyntjes van den Berg and Stephanus Naude have been dismissed on account of their sacrificing..the general Welfare to the vain Friendship of the Landdrost, by agreeing always with the same.
1797 J.H. Craig in G.M. Theal Rec. of Cape Col. (1898) II. 20I have duly received by the hands of the Heemraad Nicolaas van der Walt and the Lieutenants..your Letter...They paid the necessary and due obedience to the Landdrost and Heemraden.
1811 J.A. Truter in G.M. Theal Rec. of Cape Col. (1901) VIII. 105In the judicial sentences of this Colony, and particularly in those of Landdrost and Heemraads, a deviation from that regularity may be met with.
1816 G. Barker Journal. 21 Mar.The Landrost of Uitenhage & the Hemraads & Field-Cornets of the district.
1823 W.W. Bird State of Cape of G.H. 23An Englishman has been rarely called to the office of heemrad, except in the new drostdy of Albany, where the settlers are located.
1834 T. Pringle Afr. Sketches 525A Heemraad was a provincial functionary somewhat analogous to a justice of the peace, and was a member of the landdrost’s board.
1884 Cape Law Jrnl I. 84The Court of Landdrost and Heemraden is composed of the Landdrost and two Heemraden or Assessors taken by rotation from the Heemraden for the district of whom there are six for each district elected by the Volksraad, and holding office for two years.
1909 G.M. Theal Hist. & Ethnography of Afr. S. of Zambesi II. 258A board of heemraden was established on the 30th of August, 1682. This court consisted of four of the leading inhabitants, who held office for two years, without receiving salaries for their services.
1927 C.G. Botha Social Life in Cape Col. 69The Landdrost..presided over a Board of Heemraden to try petty civil cases and adjust a variety of disputes between the inhabitants.
1943 J. Burger Black Man’s Burden 18The old Dutch local courts of Landdrost and Heemraden were abolished and paid magistrates appointed.
1957 L.G. Green Beyond City Lights 190Stellenbosch soon became a place of importance, with Johannes Mulder as landdrost.., four heemraden, and a courthouse.
1972 Std Encycl. of Sn Afr. VI. 529Heemraden existed at the Cape..three years before the office of landdrost was instituted in 1682...At first not more than four heemraden were appointed to a district, but eventually the usual number was six, half of whom retired every year, whereupon the Governor appointed their successors.
1972 Std Encycl. of Sn Afr. VI. 530The voortrekkers took the office of landdrost with them to the Boer Republics, but not that of heemraad.
1989 Reader’s Digest Illust. Hist. of S. Afr. 100In 1827,..resident magistrates replaced landdrosts and heemraden.
2. In historical contexts. Also in the plural, but treated as singular : the council or court made up of such officials.
1801 J. Barrow Trav. I. 12The Cape of Good Hope..is divided into four districts, over each of which is placed a civil magistrate called a Landrost, who, with his Hemraaden, or a council of country burghers, is vested with powers to regulate the police of his district, superintend the affairs of government, adjust litigations, and determine petty causes.
1806 D. Baird in G.M. Theal Rec. of Cape Col. (1899) V. 338As soon after your arrival as possible you will assemble the Heemraaden or Council of the District to whom you will notify officially your appointment.
1861 P.B. Borcherds Auto-Biog. Mem. 150He recommended the different members of the heemraad to honour and respect the landdrost as their president.
1913 D. Fairbridge Piet of Italy 57The chief cashier of the Heemraad, Henricus Munkerus, looked up from beneath his heavy eyebrows as he asked the question.
1949 E. Hellmann Handbk on Race Rel. 57In country districts, the inferior courts consisted of the landdros, primarily an administrative officer, presiding over an appointed board of burghers known as the heemraad.
3. obsolete. transferred sense. Among some colonists: umpakati sense a.
1833 Graham’s Town Jrnl 16 May 3A trading station about 1 or 1½ mile from the kraals of the robbers where the neighbouring Caffer Heemraden came to me, and where the cases were settled.
1835 J.W.D. Moodie Ten Yrs in S. Afr. II. 242No important measure is ever undertaken without the advice and consent of their counsellors. These counsellors are all inferior or subordinate chieftains, who command the different subdivisions of the tribe, and are usually denominated ‘Humraden’ by the Dutch.
1835 C.L. Stretch Journal. 16 Aug.During the day a son of Geanyaa Gaika’s Hemraad arrived from Macomo with a message.
One of a court of local officials appointed to assist a landdrost in the judicial and civil administration of the district under his control.
the council or court made up of such officials.
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