DSAE test file

heemraad, noun

Forms:
heemrad, heimraadShow more Also heemrad, heimraad, hemraad, hemrad, humraad, and with initial capital.
Plurals:
heemraaden, heemraads, heemraden.
Origin:
South African Dutch, DutchShow more South African Dutch, from Dutch, ‘dike-reeve’, heem village, home + raad council.
1. In historical contexts. One of a court of local officials appointed to assist a landdrost in the judicial and civil administration of the district under his control. See also landdrost sense 1.
Note:
Heemraden, of whom there were usually six in each district, were chosen from among the most prominent members of the community, and were not remunerated. One of their most important functions was that of sitting as assessors in court cases presided over by a landdrost. The office was done away with when magistrates replaced landdrosts in December, 1827.
1795 in G.M. Theal Rec. of Cape Col. (1897) I. 209The Burgher War Officer..and two Heemraden named Hendrik Meyntjes van den Berg and Stephanus Naude have been dismissed on account of their sacrificing..the general Welfare to the vain Friendship of the Landdrost, by agreeing always with the same.
1989 Reader’s Digest Illust. Hist. of S. Afr. 100In 1827,..resident magistrates replaced landdrosts and heemraden.
2. In historical contexts. Also in the plural, but treated as singular : the council or court made up of such officials.
1801 J. Barrow Trav. I. 12The Cape of Good Hope..is divided into four districts, over each of which is placed a civil magistrate called a Landrost, who, with his Hemraaden, or a council of country burghers, is vested with powers to regulate the police of his district, superintend the affairs of government, adjust litigations, and determine petty causes.
1949 E. Hellmann Handbk on Race Rel. 57In country districts, the inferior courts consisted of the landdros, primarily an administrative officer, presiding over an appointed board of burghers known as the heemraad.
3. obsolete. transferred sense. Among some colonists: umpakati sense a.
1833 Graham’s Town Jrnl 16 May 3A trading station about 1 or 1½ mile from the kraals of the robbers where the neighbouring Caffer Heemraden came to me, and where the cases were settled.
1835 C.L. Stretch Journal. 16 Aug.During the day a son of Geanyaa Gaika’s Hemraad arrived from Macomo with a message.
One of a court of local officials appointed to assist a landdrost in the judicial and civil administration of the district under his control.
the council or court made up of such officials.
umpakatia.

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17951989