seTswana, Show more Englished form of seTswana baTswana, see Motswana; or perhaps representing obsolete seTswana pronunciation of an earlier form of baTswana; for an explanation of singular and plural forms, see mo- and ba-.
obsolescent except in historical contexts
1.a.A member of any of several Sotho-Tswana peoples inhabiting the interior of southern Africa; Chuana sense 1 a.b.Tswana sense 2 a. Also attributive, passing into adjective.
During the 19th century ‘Bechuana’ and ‘Kaffir’ often meant Sotho and Nguni respectively. ‘Bechuana’ has been replaced in South African English by ‘Tswana’ (usually meaning a seTswana-speaking South African) and ‘Batswana’ (often meaning the citizens of Botswana, but see Motswana).
1801W. SomervilleNarr. of E. Cape Frontier (1979) 123Briqua is a name unknown to them, but applied to them by the Kora Hottentots — they call themselves Bōōtshooānăs or Mōōtshooānăs — for they hardly make any distinction in the articulation of these two letters.
1818Lord C. Somerset inG.M. ThealRec. of Cape Col. (1902) XII. 112Those tribes the Boshuanas, Ghonas, and Briquas..have been very peaceable towards the Colonists.
1822Missionary Notices 214One of these visitors having frequently travelled amongst the Manketsens, Boschuanas, and Marootzes, to the north and north-east of Griqua Town, gave us much more information respecting that country.
1824W.J. BurchellTrav.II. 26In her ear are two small copper ornaments of Bichuana manufacture.
a1838A. SmithJrnl (1975) 187Locusts form with the Bituanas not an uncommon article of food, and..are by no means disrelished by these natives.
1884Cape Law JrnlI. 223These are the..interior Basuto tribes and those in the Transvaal Territory and Colonial Basutos, including the Barolongs of the Orange Free State and the Beetshuanas or Batlapins of Griqualand West and also the Griquas.
1827G. ThompsonTrav. 158The marauding horde..were now plundering and destroying the Bechuana tribes to the northward.
1832Graham’s Town Jrnl 24 Feb. 34In 1824 and 1825, the Bechuanas were in a most wretched condition. They had been attacked by the Mantatees, who..are reputed cannibals. The Griquas also..made inroads upon them.
1835G. ChampionJrnl (1968) 10The range of mts separating the Caffre from the Betjouana country.
1835G. ChampionJrnl (1968) 35Striking difference between the Kaffers & Betjouanas.
1837R. Giddy inB. ShawMemorials (1841) 227I have now to take leave of this people, having received orders from the Committee to remove to the Bechuana Mission.
1845S. Dennison inD.R. Edgecombe,Letters of Hannah Dennison. (1968) 202Mrs Cambell wishes Elizabeth to stay with her untill she is confined so we will not see her in the betcuana Country untill July.
[1857D. LivingstoneMissionary Trav. 200The name Bechuana seems derived from the word Chuana — alike or equal — with the personal pronoun Ba (they) prefixed; and therefore means fellows or equals. Some have supposed the name to have arisen from a mistake of some traveller, who, on asking individuals of this nation concerning the tribes living beyond them, received the answer, Bachuana, ‘they (are) alike;’ meaning, They are the same as we are’.]
1860W. ShawStory of my Mission 399The ‘Kwahlamba’..forms the impracticable and almost impassable boundary which has for ages separated the Bechuana nations of the more inland districts, from the Kaffirs of the coast country.
1867E.L. PriceJrnls (1956) 266She uttered a sort of low howl when I said that Robert was dead & then she went away without begging a single thing — which is of course a remarkable event for an untaught Mochuana.
1905W.H. Tooke inFlint & GilchristScience in S. Afr. 92The be-Chuana are..remarkable for their honesty, a virtue which has been noticed from Livingstone’s time.
1905Native Tribes of Tvl 131The Basuto and Bechuana..are both moderately developed people, generally well-built, wiry and active, but slight in figure.
1916Act 1 inStat. of Union 2Section five of Act No. 28 of 1898..is hereby amended by..the addition after the word ‘Koranna’ of the following words:– ‘Griqua, Zulu, Bechuana, Swazi, or any member of any aboriginal tribe or race of Africa.’
1930S.T. PlaatjeMhudi (1975) 21Two centuries ago the Bechuana tribes inhabited the extensive areas between Central Transvaal and the Kalahari Desert.
a1951H.C. BosmanWillemsdorp (1977) 55The flat-boy..was one Pieta, a Bechuana whose brown-boot-polish complexion was several degrees lighter than Mhlopi’s own.
1965J.D. Jones inSetswana Dict. (1982) p.viThe sound represented by c and its aspirated relative ch is rarely if ever heard among the northern Becwana.
1967E.M. SlatterMy Leaves Are Green 33Dogs were barking, and the native labourers, Fingos, Xosa, Bechuanas..and others, were singing round their own fires.
1973J. CowdenFor Love 26Reverend James Archbell..came from Yorkshire in 1818 to be a missionary amongst the Baralong tribe in Bechuana Country (the Transvaal of today)...He and his wife..were the first to publish a book — a reader for the Tswana people.
1986P. MaylamHist. of Afr. People 44The label ‘Bechuana’ was developed by whites in the nineteenth century and was often applied very loosely to cover all the African peoples of the interior.
1989J. Crwys-WilliamsS. Afr. Despatches 14On an up-country visit..Thompson observed a general assembly of the tribes making up the Bechuana nation, which was called together at Kuruman to meet the threat of the advancing Mantatees.
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