DSAE test file

hamba, verb intransitive

Forms:
amba, amberShow more Also amba, amber, humba.
Origin:
Xhosa, ZuluShow more Xhosa and Zulu, ‘go’.
1. To go; frequently imperative, ‘go on’, ‘push off’. So also the emphatic hambake /ˈhambake/ also hambarkai [Zulu enclitic formative -ke], ‘go immediately’. Cf. suka sense a, voetsak sense 1 a.
1827 G. Thompson Trav. 376The Caffers..say hamba for get you gone.
1994 Style Oct. 30Get Ahead has taken a three-year lease in the Cape..and next? Hamba London-side.
2. in the phrase hamba kahle /ˌhʌmbəˈɡɑːʃli/, /ˌhambaˈɡɑːɬe/, also hamba couthley, hamba gachle, hamba gahle, hamba gahlé, hamba gahli, hamba gashli, hamba gashly, hamba gathle, hamba gooshly, hamba gthlie, hamba kahale, hamba khole [Zulu or (occasionally) Xhosa kahle, see gashle (in Xhosa more commonly hamba kakuhle); when addressing more than one person, the form hambani kahle is used], used in the following ways:
a. As an interjectional phrase: go well. Cf. sala kahle.
Note:
Now often used as a respectful farewell to a deceased person.
1836 A.F. Gardiner Journey to Zoolu Country 142His last words were ‘Amba couthley’ (I wish you a pleasant journey).
1993 Weekly Mail 18 June 12He is survived by his girlfriend and a kid. Hamba kahle Qawe.
b. As v. phr. (usually imperative):
Note:
Sometimes partially translated, see go gashle (gashle).
i. Travel safely, ‘go well’. Also transferred sense, see quotation 1969.
1838 G. Champion in J. Bird Annals of Natal (1888) I. 224The king expected I would leave the country, and told me to ‘Hamba gahli’.
1971 Daily Dispatch 15 Nov. 12Paramount Chief Kaiser Matanzima..intends to ‘hamba kahle’ still. He is well advised to take no chances.
ii. A warning: ‘go carefully’, ‘watch out’.
1899 G.H. Russell Under Sjambok 24‘Hamba gashli, Inkoss!’ (Go easy, Sir) yelled Basket, my native driver.
1978 Sunday Times 23 Apr. (Mag. Sect.) 3There’s a Table Mountain guide..and a map of the mountain can be obtained from the local publicity association. Hamba gahle.
3. In the phrase hamba kaya /ˌhʌmbəˈkaɪa/, also hamba kyah [see kaya], go home. Also (nonce) as adjective. See also kaya sense 2.
1908 D. Blackburn Leaven 299I should be only a kitchen boy, as I was in Maritzburg, with the police always waiting to catch me for being out after the ‘hamba kyah’ bell had rung.
1951 L.G. Green Grow Lovely 156The plague frightened Cape Town and thousands of native labourers shouted ‘Hamba Kya’ and clamoured for passes so that they could return to their homes.
4. In the phrase forever hamba [especially in early uses, a pun on the book title Forever Amber], used jokingly (as noun phrase and verbal phrase) to allude to the forcible removal of people in terms of the policies of apartheid.
1952 Kaapenaar in Drum Sept. 10This is the story of the educated African who walked the streets of Johannesburg in search of a job...And do you know what he has decided to call his masterpiece?..‘Forever Hamba!’ of course.
1989 Sunday Times 19 Nov. 12Another best-seller, Forever Hamba, also known as the Oshikati Exodus, is said to be a fascinating sequel to Good-bye Dolly Gray and is being fine-toothcombed by SA Intelligence.
5. In the imperative phrase hamba dompas /ˌhamba ˈdɔmpas/ [Afrikaans dompas see dompas; see New Nation quotation 1987], ‘push off, dompas’, a slogan adopted by the National Party government to publicize the end of the law requiring black people to carry identity documents at all times. Also attributive. See also pass sense 3.
1986 Pace Aug. 4Anyhow, me too, I say Hamba Dompas (but no welcome to the new-one stinker either).
1987 Pace Nov. 14No amount of expense or ‘positive’ Hamba Dompas advertising could convince or coerce blacks into believing..that they should flock in droves to apply for the new ID.
To go; frequently imperative, ‘go on’, ‘push off’. So also the emphatic hambakeˈhambake also hambarkai enclitic formative -ke, ‘go immediately’.
go well.
Travel safely, ‘go well’. Also transferred sense, see quotation 1969.
A warning: ‘go carefully’, ‘watch out’.
go home. Also (nonce) as adjective.
used jokingly (as noun phrase and verbal phrase) to allude to the forcible removal of people in terms of the policies of apartheid.
‘push off, dompas’, a slogan adopted by the National Party government to publicize the end of the law requiring black people to carry identity documents at all times. Also attributive.

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18271994