DSAE test file

pass, noun

Origin:
EnglishShow more Special senses of general English pass (written) permission or authorization to pass.
historical
See also pass law.
1. (Similar to general Eng. usage.) Especially during the 19th century: a temporary permit in the form of a letter, certificate, or token issued by one in authority, allowing movement from one district to another, and required by law to be carried a. by visitors travelling through the Colony; b. by the settlers of 1820 when not on their own land; c. by Khoikhoi persons, in terms of vagrancy laws; or d. by black persons entering the Cape Colony, or moving livestock within the colony. In all senses also called certificate (sense 1).
1786 G. Forster tr. of A. Sparrman’s Voy. to Cape of G.H. I. 118As the colonists here are enjoined by the laws to seize..all such as travel about the country without being able to show a permission in writing for that purpose, I therefore solicited and obtained the governor’s pass, requiring that I should pass every where free and unmolested.
1989 Reader’s Digest Illust. Hist. of S. Afr. 52Slaves sent by their owners beyond a certain distance were obliged to carry a pass, signed by the owner, stating the particulars of the mission.
2. From the late 19th century: an official certificate or letter (often from an employer), required by law to be carried by black men (especially in urban areas) as a means of controlling movement and enforcing liquor- and curfew-laws; certificate sense 2; special. Also attributive.
1900 W.S. Churchill London to Ladysmith 133‘Is it right that a dirty Kaffir should walk on the pavement — without a pass too?’
1990 A.A. George in Weekend Post 3 Mar. 6I think back on how Africans pleaded with people to write a pass for them and when the curfew rang and the bombella sounded its whistle, how they ran down Jetty Street.
3. In full pass book. From 1952 to 1986: an identity book which had to be carried at all times by black men (and women, after 1956) over the age of 16, and which was central to the administration of apartheid, being used particularly to limit the movement of black people to the urban areas; domboek; dombook; dompas sense 1; dompass; reference book; stinker. See also endorse, influx control.
Note:
This document contained personal and official information (see quotation 1968), and failure to carry a ‘pass’ was a criminal offence. The pass was one of the most hated aspects of apartheid.
1952 B. Davidson Report on Sn Afr. 118The business of the police in these settlements is simple and straightforward. They are charged with seeing that all Africans have the necessary passes.
1991 R. Riordan in Crux Feb. 4A..Native Commissioner’s Court..was a special court that only heard cases relating to pass book offences.
4. Attributive and combinations
pass arrest, an arrest made for failure to carry a pass book, or for presence in an area without the necessary endorsement in one’s pass;
pass-burner, one who burns his or her pass in protest against the pass laws;
pass-burning verbal noun;
pass-law, see as a main entry;
pass offence, failure to produce a valid pass when required to do so, punishable by a fine or a gaol sentence;
pass offender, one found guilty of a pass offence;
pass office, the administrative centre in each town or district which oversaw the issuing and control of passes (and, during the apartheid era, which acted as an employment bureau); see also administration board;
pass raid, a surprise police action to check that people in an area were in possession of valid documents and were thus entitled to be there;
pass system, the legislation under which passes were issued, and the way in which this legislation was enforced; cf. dompas system (dompas sense 2). See also pass law.
1971 Post 21 Mar. 7The learned doctor said..that when the number of pass arrests were compared with the number of people carrying passes (that’s us), the proportion was not high at all.
1988 P. Edgar in Personality 25 July 68It did not matter to her in that moment that the hated pass-system was finally abolished.
Especially during the 19th century: a temporary permit in the form of a letter, certificate, or token issued by one in authority, allowing movement from one district to another, and required by law to be carried a. by visitors travelling through the Colony; b. by the settlers of 1820 when not on their own land; c. by Khoikhoi persons, in terms of vagrancy laws; or d. by black persons entering the Cape Colony, or moving livestock within the colony. In all senses also called certificate (sense 1).
From the late 19th century: an official certificate or letter (often from an employer), required by law to be carried by black men (especially in urban areas) as a means of controlling movement and enforcing liquor- and curfew-laws; certificate2; special. Also attributive.
an identity book which had to be carried at all times by black men (and women, after 1956) over the age of 16, and which was central to the administration of apartheid, being used particularly to limit the movement of black people to the urban areas; domboek; dombook; dompas1; dompass; reference book; stinker.
Derivatives:
Hence passless adjective, without a pass.
1915 Transvaal Leader in D.B. Coplan, Urbanization of African Performing Arts. (1980) 137The haunt of the criminal, the passless native, the loafer.
1966 L.G. Berger Where’s Madam 190Living the life of a hunted passless native, one step ahead of the police.

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17861991