endorse, verb transitive

Origin:
See quotation 1962.
historical
In the phrase to endorse (someone) out, to order (a black person) to leave an urban area because certain requirements of the Native Laws Amendment Act of 1952, or subsequent Acts, were not met by that person (see quotation 1963). Usually passive. Also transferred sense.
Note:
A person endorsed out of an urban area was expected to ‘return’ to the rural area or ‘homeland’ set aside for occupation by his or her ethnic group. See also homeland sense 1, influx control, pass sense 3.
1959 M. Horrell Racialism & Trade Unions 14Dubbed an ‘agitator’, dismissed from his job, and, possibly, ‘endorsed out’ of the area concerned.
1962 B. Wilks in Black Sash June 27Since January, 1956, twenty-six thousand..Africans have been ‘endorsed out’ of the Western Cape under the Bantu Urban Areas Act, that is, an endorsement has been stamped in their Reference Books stating that they have no permit to remain in the area.
1963 Wilson & Mafeje Langa 2A man is ‘endorsed out’ if he is without employment, and has not lived in Cape Town for at least fifteen years, or been with one employer for at least ten years; a woman if she is neither employed nor the wife of a man ‘exempted’ because of the length of his employment in town.
1968 J. Lelyveld in Cole & Flaherty House of Bondage 12If he is [unemployed], he can be ‘endorsed out’ for being what the law calls ‘an idle Bantu’.
1972 E. Prov. Herald 10 Feb. 1He did not believe that the White people in the areas the Transkei wanted should be ‘endorsed out’.
1973 E. Prov. Herald 31 May 7We have..restricted the rights of those we regard as our inferiors. We endorse out of existence those who cannot defend themselves and relegate them..to the cold and starvation of..Dimbaza..and Orangefontein.
[1974 A. Fugard Statements 25‘Sizwe Bansi. Endorsed to King William’s Town...’ Takes your book, fetches that same stamp, and in it goes again.]
1976 R.L. Peteni Hill of Fools 136There were many people, men and women, who were endorsed out of Port Elizabeth for one reason or another, though they had lived there for many years.
1976 M. Tholo in C. Hermer Diary of Maria Tholo (1980) 23Another strike was supposed to start this week...We Africans do not have permanence in Cape Town and the Government could use it as an excuse to endorse us out.
1981 Pace Sept. 16By 1979, a further 500 000 blacks had been endorsed out of urban areas under the pass laws.
1982 A. Berry in Seek Sept. 6 (cartoon)The Garden of Eden was declared a closed Group Area..and the occupants were endorsed out.
1986 P. Maylam Hist. of Afr. People 180‘Those who because of old age, weak health, unfitness, or other reasons are no longer able to work’..were the people who could be ‘endorsed out’ of urban areas for not possessing section 10 rights under the 1952 Native Laws Amendment Act.
1990 R. Malan My Traitor’s Heart 51A black breadwinner had died, and his survivors were being evicted from their township house and ‘endorsed out’ to the homelands.
In the phrase to endorse (someone) out, to order (a black person) to leave an urban area because certain requirements of the Native Laws Amendment Act of 1952, or subsequent Acts, were not met by that person (see quotation 1963). Usually passive. Also transferred sense.
Derivatives:
Hence endorsement out noun phrase; endorse-out adjective (rare, perhaps nonce), see quotation 1972; endorsing out verbal noun phrase.
1964 M. Benson Afr. Patriots 265‘Endorsing out’ was the Government’s euphemism for driving out Africans from urban areas to reserves under the notorious Section 10 of the Urban Areas Act.
1971 Daily Dispatch 18 Aug. 11The resettlement camps were bleeding wounds sapping out the life of the African people. To heal them would be to stop the flow first — removals and endorsements out of people in urban areas.
1972 Drum 8 Mar. 29The endorse-out man who packed his bags...He was boss of Johannesburg Non-European Affairs Department...He was the man who did the endorsing out.
1973 Weekend Post 28 Apr. 11Consider..the constant fear of pass raids and prison or ‘endorsement-out’.
1973 M. Van Biljon in Star 30 June 6Endorsing all the Black women and children out of White areas..was a proposition that was carried almost unanimously.

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19591990