Shangaan, noun

Forms:
Mshangaan, ShangaanShow more singular Mshangaan, Shangaan; singular and plural Machangana, Shangana, Shangane; plural Amachangana, amaShangaan, Amatshangane, Mashangana, MaShangane, Shangaans.
Plurals:
usually Shangaans.
Origin:
Probably named for the founding chief, Soshangane; but see also quotation 1905.
1.
a. A member of a people of Zulu and Tsonga origin, living mainly in the Northern and Eastern Transvaal, Gaza Province in southern Mozambique, and southern Zimbabwe; Knobneus; Knobnose; Knopneus; Magwamba; Tonga sense 1; Tsonga sense 1. Also attributive, and combination Shangaan-Tsonga. See also Vatua sense a.
1884 Cape Law Jrnl I. 223The Amaxosa Kafirs, Fingoes, Tembus, Amampondo,..Shangaans, Matabele, [etc.].
1887 J.W. Matthews Incwadi Yami 183The native labour of the diamond fields..includes nearly twenty different tribes such as Zulus, Swazees, Basutos, Shangaans, [etc.].
1905 Native Tribes of Tvl 64The name Shangaan is an abbreviation of Amachangana, meaning ‘the destroyers’...Ma-gwamba, a name by which they are often known, was given to the Shangaans by the Bavenda and Basuto peoples on account of their swearing by ‘Gwamba,’ who according to them was the first man created. They used to be called ‘Knob-noses’ from the custom of lacerating their faces, especially the nose.
1905 Native Tribes of Tvl 88The Shangaans found in the eastern districts..are mostly recent immigrants from Portuguese territory, having fled into the Transvaal after the defeat and capture of their chief Gungunyana by the Portuguese in 1896.
1910 J. Buchan Prester John 40The countryside was crawling with natives, and great strings used to come through from Shangaan territory on the way to the Rand mines.
1937 J. Stevenson-Hamilton S. Afr. Eden 120Among the Amatshangane the memory of the strict regimental system of the Zulus still lingered.
a1951 H.C. Bosman Willemsdorp (1977) 55Pieta..was only a Bechuana, which wasn’t much better than a Mshangaan.
1961 T.V. Bulpin White Whirlwind 140The mountain was known to Europeans as the Mountain of Ghosts. Somewhere near its summit the Shangane tribe buried their chiefs in a secret cave.
1971 Daily Dispatch 4 Feb. 1The territorial authorities of the..Tswanas, the Venda, the North Sotho and the Machangana.
1975 H.P. Junod in Std Encycl. of Sn Afr. IX. 600The characteristic tribal mark of the Shangana-Tsonga is the pierced ear-lobe...The Shangana-Tsonga are a pastoral people, with a strong cattle complex...In accordance with Government policy, the Transvaal Tsonga — called Machangana (Shangaans), their language being Tsonga — have been recognised as one of the eight Bantu peoples living in the Republic of South Africa.
1975 W.F. Lye Andrew Smith’s Jrnl 1834–6 320maShangane (also called Ngoni). Tribe composed of Tsonga and their Northern Nguni conquerors led by Soshangane when he fled from Shaka and the Zulu empire.
1976 West & Morris Abantu 109A Tsonga maiden. Her people now live in Mocambique and the North-Eastern Transvaal. They derive the name ‘Shangaan’ from one of Shaka’s lieutenants, Shoshangane, who conquered them in 1820–21 in the course of his flight from the Zulu despot.
1978 A. Elliott Sons of Zulu 66Soshangane.., the founder of the Shangane nation whose kingdom stretched from north of Maputo..to the banks of the Zambezi River.
1984 D. Beckett in Frontline Feb. 32When Mashangane quit Natal, chased out by Shaka, he moved north and set up his Gaza empire. Mozambique’s Gaza province is still populated largely by Shangaans.
1985 Population census form, Rep. of S. Afr.North Sotho.., Shangaan/Tsonga, South Ndebele.., South Sotho, [etc.].
1988 G. Silber in Style Apr. 38The Shangaan tribal homeland of Gazankulu, on the western boundary of the Kruger National Park.
1990 New African 11 June 12Black is beautiful was coined to unite Amazulu, Basotho, Mashangana, Indians, so-called ‘Coloureds’, etc.
b. Especially among miners: a Mozambican member of this people.
1980 M. Lipton in Optima Vol.29 No.2, 112‘Our Malawians’ and ‘our Shangaans’ (Moçambicans), as the old-timers on the mines now nostalgically call them.
2. The language of the Shangaan people, including the South African and the Mozambican dialects. Cf. Tsonga sense 2.
1957 Junod & Jaques Wisdom of Tsonga-Shangana People 11The new standard Shangana-Tsonga orthography.
1959 B. Bunting Story behind Non-White Press 7‘Workers’ Unity’..reports trade union and political news in Zulu, Sesotho, Shangaan, Xosa, Afrikaans and English.
1971 Rand Daily Mail 28 July 7Besides Afrikaans and English he speaks all the African languages in the Republic except Shangaan and Venda.
1971 S. Afr. Panorama Dec. 29‘Tzana’ is the Machangana word for basket, and the name, Tzaneen,..may have been derived from it.
1982 Voice 30 May 7The album..is in both English and Shangaan and boasts of tracks with gospel music and modernised church hymns that have been given an African cultural beat.
1985 S. Afr. Panorama Jan. 48The Shangaan for Hippotraginae is Mpala Mpala.
A member of a people of Zulu and Tsonga origin, living mainly in the Northern and Eastern Transvaal, Gaza Province in southern Mozambique, and southern Zimbabwe; Knobneus; Knobnose; Knopneus; Magwamba; Tonga1; Tsonga1. Also attributive, and combinationShangaan-Tsonga.
a Mozambican member of this people.
The language of the Shangaan people, including the South African and the Mozambican dialects.

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18841990