1887J.W. MatthewsIncwadi Yami 183The native labour of the diamond fields..includes nearly twenty different tribes such as Zulus, Swazees, Basutos, Shangaans, [etc.].
1905Native Tribes of Tvl 64The name Shangaan is an abbreviation of Amachangana, meaning ‘the destroyers’...Ma-gwamba, a name by which they are often known, was given to the Shangaans by the Bavenda and Basuto peoples on account of their swearing by ‘Gwamba,’ who according to them was the first man created. They used to be called ‘Knob-noses’ from the custom of lacerating their faces, especially the nose.
1905Native Tribes of Tvl 88The Shangaans found in the eastern districts..are mostly recent immigrants from Portuguese territory, having fled into the Transvaal after the defeat and capture of their chief Gungunyana by the Portuguese in 1896.
1910J. BuchanPrester John 40The countryside was crawling with natives, and great strings used to come through from Shangaan territory on the way to the Rand mines.
1937J. Stevenson-HamiltonS. Afr. Eden 120Among the Amatshangane the memory of the strict regimental system of the Zulus still lingered.
a1951H.C. BosmanWillemsdorp (1977) 55Pieta..was only a Bechuana, which wasn’t much better than a Mshangaan.
1961T.V. BulpinWhite Whirlwind 140The mountain was known to Europeans as the Mountain of Ghosts. Somewhere near its summit the Shangane tribe buried their chiefs in a secret cave.
1971Daily Dispatch 4 Feb. 1The territorial authorities of the..Tswanas, the Venda, the North Sotho and the Machangana.
1975H.P. Junod inStd Encycl. of Sn Afr.IX. 600The characteristic tribal mark of the Shangana-Tsonga is the pierced ear-lobe...The Shangana-Tsonga are a pastoral people, with a strong cattle complex...In accordance with Government policy, the Transvaal Tsonga — called Machangana (Shangaans), their language being Tsonga — have been recognised as one of the eight Bantu peoples living in the Republic of South Africa.
1975W.F. LyeAndrew Smith’s Jrnl 1834–6 320maShangane (also called Ngoni). Tribe composed of Tsonga and their Northern Nguni conquerors led by Soshangane when he fled from Shaka and the Zulu empire.
1976West & MorrisAbantu 109A Tsonga maiden. Her people now live in Mocambique and the North-Eastern Transvaal. They derive the name ‘Shangaan’ from one of Shaka’s lieutenants, Shoshangane, who conquered them in 1820–21 in the course of his flight from the Zulu despot.
1978A. ElliottSons of Zulu 66Soshangane.., the founder of the Shangane nation whose kingdom stretched from north of Maputo..to the banks of the Zambezi River.
1984D. Beckett inFrontline Feb. 32When Mashangane quit Natal, chased out by Shaka, he moved north and set up his Gaza empire. Mozambique’s Gaza province is still populated largely by Shangaans.
1985Population census form, Rep. of S. Afr.North Sotho.., Shangaan/Tsonga, South Ndebele.., South Sotho, [etc.].
1988G. Silber inStyle Apr. 38The Shangaan tribal homeland of Gazankulu, on the western boundary of the Kruger National Park.
1990New African 11 June 12Black is beautiful was coined to unite Amazulu, Basotho, Mashangana, Indians, so-called ‘Coloureds’, etc.
A member of a people of Zulu and Tsonga origin, living mainly in the Northern and Eastern Transvaal, Gaza Province in southern Mozambique, and southern Zimbabwe; Knobneus; Knobnose; Knopneus; Magwamba; Tonga1; Tsonga1. Also attributive, and combinationShangaan-Tsonga.
a Mozambican member of this people.
The language of the Shangaan people, including the South African and the Mozambican dialects.
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