Griqua, noun

Forms:
Gauriqua, GrikwaShow more Also Gauriqua, Grikwa, Griquaa, Griquer, Guriqua.
Plurals:
Griquas, or unchanged.
Origin:
Khoikhoi, NamaShow more Etymology obscure: perhaps adaptation of Khoikhoi !ke //kwa people; or adaptation of Chariguriqua, later Grigriqua (see quotation 1986), from Nama ≠Karihuriqua (‘the small tribe which lives at the sea’), a Khoikoi people living north of the Cape settlement in the 17th century; or from name of a clan ancestor, Xiri.
1. A member of a people of mixed Khoikhoi (probably Grigriqua), white, and black African origin, now living mainly in East Griqualand (in the province of KwaZulu-Natal) and Griqualand West (in the Northern Cape Province); also called Bastard Hottentot. Also attributive. See also Bastard noun sense 1, Chariguriqua.
1731 G. Medley tr. of P. Kolben’s Present State of Cape of G.H. I. 78Next to the Damaquas, lie the Gauros or Gauriquas.
1795 C.R. Hopson tr. of C.P. Thunberg’s Trav. I. 308Gauriquas land extends more to the north-eastward: this is very fine country, and abounds in grass.
1815 J. Campbell Trav. in S. Afr. 349The people in this part, being a mixed race, went by the name of Bastards; but..they resolved to assume some other name...They found the majority were descended from a person of the name of Griqua, and they resolved hereafter to be called Griquaas.
1827 A.J. Jardine Fragment of Church Hist. 55Among the Griquas there seems at present to be much commotion; and recently blood [h]as been shed.
1835 G. Champion Jrnl (1968) 21Have seen a chief of the Griqua nation (Kok)...The Griquas are a nation on the northern border of the colony. They are properly Bastard Hottentots.
1843 M.H. Oberholzer et al. in G.W. Eybers Sel. Constit. Doc. (1918) 261It is not our intention (or desire) to drive the colored people, either Griquas or Bastards, from their possessions or dwellings.
1857 D. Livingstone Missionary Trav. 104By Griquas is meant any mixed race sprung from native and European. Those in question were of Dutch extraction, through association with Hottentot and Bushmen.
1870 C. Hamilton Life & Sport in S.-E. Afr. 205Several Griquas — that is to say, the descendants of Hottentots, allied with the lowest class of Dutch settlers, and adopting the nomadic customs of the former — came up in their waggons from nomans-land.
a1892 G. McKiernan Narr. & Jrnl (1954) 64We heard that there was a Griqua Baastard hunter named Kruger, some days to the eastward, who had killed a lot of ivory.
1928 H. Vedder in Native Tribes of S.W. Afr. 114Chariguriqua in the neighbourhood of St. Helena Bay. Obviously it is the same tribe elsewhere called the Gouriqua, from which the word Grigriqua is formed. The real name of the tribe was ≠Karihuriqua =i.e., the small (=≠Kari-) tribe which lives at the sea (-hurib=sea). This tribe was afterwards known under the name Griqua...By then (sc. the first half of the 18th century) they had European blood in them.
1943 D. Reitz No Outspan 206The Griquas were a yellow-skinned race, a cross between the bushmen and the Hottentots and originally they lived along the coastal belt of Malmesbury in the Western Province of the Cape.
1975 W.F. Lye Andrew Smith’s Jrnl 1834–6 311Griqua, Part Hottentot people organised and settled beyond the Orange River by Adam Kok I and Cornelius Kok I. The name derived from the clan name of their chief (Xiri) and was adopted in 1813.
1976 R. Ross Adam Kok’s Griquas 1The Griquas were descendants of early Boer frontiersmen; of the remnants of Khoisan tribes..; of escaped slaves from the wine and wheat farms of the south-west Cape; of free blacks from the colony who could find no acceptable place for themselves in it; and of African tribesmen.
1977 R. Elphick Kraal & Castle 135The original Guriqua may have been a Strandloper group which acquired livestock: this theory would explain their name (Sea People)..and the fact that other Khoikhoi occasionally identified them as ‘San’.
1986 A. Hendry in Cameron & Spies Illust. Hist. of S. Afr. 144John Campbell..persuaded the Bastards to adopt the name of Griquas in 1813. This name harked back to the Grigriqua, the original Khoikhoi group from which Adam Kok’s people were descended.
1989 [see No Man’s Land sense 1].
2. combination
Griqualand, a name given to those areas (once) inhabited by Griquas, especially Griqualand West (see quotation 1989) and East Griqualand (or Griqualand East), the area round Kokstad; hence Griqualander noun, an inhabitant of either area. See also No Man’s Land sense 1.
1840 C.A. Kinloch in Echo 26 Oct. 2This noble stream (sc. the Orange River)..divides the district of Colesberg from Griqualand, a wide tract of land inhabited by the Bastards.
1897 A.J. Butler tr. of Ratzel’s Hist. Mankind II. iii. 295The term ‘Griqualanders’..has become usual since the Griquas have..had a country of their own allotted them.
1900 A.W. Carter Informant, Ladybrand 8 Feb.Some Griqualanders had reported that the English were making a move down the river.
1989 P.E. Raper Dict. of Sn Afr. Place Names 190Griqualand,..Region comprising the Hay district and the western part of Barkly West. So called because it was the home of the Griqua Khoekhoen.
1994 Weekend Post 22 Oct. 4Hands off Kokstad, say Griqualanders.
A member of a people of mixed Khoikhoi (probably Grigriqua), white, and black African origin, now living mainly in East Griqualand (in the province of KwaZulu-Natal) and Griqualand West (in the Northern Cape Province); also called Bastard Hottentot. Also attributive.
Entry Navigation

Visualise Quotations

Quotation summary

Senses

17311994