Namaqua, noun and & adjective

Forms:
Namaaqua, NamacquaShow more Also Namaaqua, Namacqua, Namacque, Namagwa, Namaquoi, Namiquoi, Nimiqua.
Plurals:
Namaquas, or unchanged.
Origin:
Nama, KhoikhoiShow more Nama (Khoikhoi) Nama, probably from nami, nams tongue (referring to the characteristic clicks in the Nama language) + masculine plural suffix -qua men, people. (The preferred modern form is Nama.)
A. noun
1. Nama noun sense 1.
Note:
The Namaqua were described by the early settlers as consisting of two peoples, the ‘Greater Namaqua’ and the ‘Lesser (or Little) Namaqua’: see quotation 1930 (which includes a list of the principal Namaqua clans).
1688 G. Tachard Voy. to Siam 74The Namaquas..are all tall of Stature and strong, have good natural sense...They seldom laugh, and speak very little.
1731 G. Medley tr. of P. Kolben’s Present State of Cape of G.H. I. 66We come now to the two Nations, call’d the Greater and Lesser Namaqua. The Lesser lies on the Coast; the Greater is the next Nation East ward.
1790 tr. of F. Le Vaillant’s Trav. I. 133The country of the great Namaquois.
1795 C.R. Hopson tr. of C.P. Thunberg’s Trav. I. 307Two great and famous nations, the Little Namaquas, who live on the sea-coast, and the Great Namaquas, who reside farther from it.
1812 A. Plumptre tr. of H. Lichtenstein’s Trav. in Sn Afr. (1928) I. 170He was of the tribe called Grosse Namaaquas.
1821 Missionary Notices 119The figure of the Namacquas is by no means without attractions. They are generally taller than the Hottentots within the Colony, and are quite erect, and well proportioned.
1838 J.E. Alexander Exped. into Int. I. 56We got milk for tobacco from the yellow faced and Chinese-looking Namaquas.
1838 J.E. Alexander Exped. into Int. I. 192The Great Namaquas are taller than the Little Namaquas, but have the same general resemblances, their colour being yellowish brown, hair crisp and curled, noses and eyes small, faces triangular, lips protruding.
1838 J.E. Alexander Exped. into Int. I. 260Henrick came from his huts to visit me; he was a spare and athletic Namaqua, of forty years of age.
1841 B. Shaw Memorials 20The Namacquas..are divided into two distinct tribes, called the Little and the Great Namacquas, but so far resemble each other, that it would be useless to treat of them separately.
1841 B. Shaw Memorials 270This Namacqua..was a man of deep piety, and of fervent zeal for the glory of God.
1877 Sel. Comm. Report on Mission to Damaraland 95The northern Namaquas were alone engaged in the war with the Damaras, and it is only amongst them..that the ill-treating and robbery of traders and others have settled into a custom.
1883 F. Galton Inquiries into Human Faculty 204The Bantus, after endless struggles among themselves, were being pushed aside at the time I visited them by the incoming Namaquas.
1904 A.K. Keane Africa II. 182The Namaqua proper, formerly said to number several hundred thousand, are now reduced to little over 20,000 including 3,000 settled in Little Namaqualand south of the Orange River.
1920 S.M. Molema Bantu Past & Present 31The best known of the tribes are the Nama-qua, or people of Nama (‘qua’ meaning ‘people or men of’) the Kora-qua, better known as Korannas, and the Geri-qua or Griquas.
1930 I. Schapera KhoiSan Peoples 47The fourth and best known division of the Hottentots are the Naman, spoken of more frequently as the Namaquas. They were classified by the early Dutch settlers into two main groups: the Little Namaqua, living south of the Orange River in what is now Little Namaqualand, and the Great Namaqua, living north of the Orange River in the southern parts of what is now South West Africa.
1930 I. Schapera KhoiSan Peoples 48The Great Namaqua were subdivided into seven tribal groups...These groups were the Gei‖Khauan (often known by their Dutch name Rooi Natie)...the !Gami ≠Nun (bondelswarts), in the district of Warmbad..the ‖Haboben (Veldskoendragers), round Koes and Hasuur; the !Khara Gei Khoin (Simon Coppers or Franzmanns)..the ‖Khau/Goan (Swartboois), who lived at Rehoboth till about 1870, when they removed first to Ameib, and then to Fransfontein in the southern part of the Koakoveld..the ‖O Gein (Groot Doode), who formerly roamed about the upper courses of the Great Fish River, but ceased to exist some fifty years ago..and the ≠Aunin (or !Naranis Topnaars), of whom some live round Zesfontein in the Kaokoveld and the others at Walvis Bay.
1977 R. Elphick Kraal & Castle 135To modern scholars the Namaqua are the most familiar of all Khoikhoi peoples; however, in the seventeenth century they were only on the fringes of the Dutch consciousness.
2. combinations In the names of animals:
Namaqua Afrikander, a hardy variety of Afrikander sheep (see Afrikander noun sense 7), found in the relatively dry parts of the Cape;
Namaqua dove [probably a translation of South African Dutch Namaquasduyf], the dove Oena capensis of the Columbidae;
Namaqua grouse obsolete, Namaqua partridge obsolete [probably a translation of South African Dutch Namaqua patrijs, see quotations 1867 and 1897], Namaqua sandgrouse (see below);
Namaqua pheasant, the Natal francolin (see Natal sense c), Francolinus natalensis;
Namaqua sandgrouse, any of four species of African sand-grouse of the Pteroclidae, especially Pterocles namaqua (see also kelkiewyn sense a).
1957 Handbk for Farmers (Dept of Agric.) III. 221The Namaqua Africander. Both the Ronderib and Namaqua were developed from the same parent stock and the difference must, therefore, be ascribed to the difference in climatic and feeding conditions in the areas where these breeds originated.
[1795Namaqua dove: C.R. Hopson tr. of C.P. Thunberg’s Trav. II. 34A small dove..called Maquas Duyv (Colomba capensis) frequented the gardens, and there sought its food.]
1801 J. Barrow Trav. I. 283Along the road were numbers of that beautiful little pigeon, called here the Namaaqua dove, not larger than a sparrow.
1864 T. Baines Explor. in S.-W. Afr. 124A pretty Namaqua dove fluttered about in abortive efforts to sip the water.
1884 Layard & Sharpe Birds of S. Afr. 573 (Pettman)This exquisite little dove..is known by the name of Namaqua dove to the Dutch Cape Colonists.
1905 J. Du Plessis 1000 Miles in Heart of Afr. 137As for the birds they abound in every bush..turtle-doves and little black-eyed Namaqua doves.
1936 E.L. Gill First Guide to S. Afr. Birds 112Namaqua dove, Usually seen on the wing, when its very small size, and great speed, its long tail, and the cinnamon in its wings make it very recognizable.
1947 J. Stevenson-Hamilton Wild Life in S. Afr. 291Doves...The little namaqua (Oena capensis) appears to be a winter migrant to the eastern Transvaal low country.
1972 Shooting Times & Country Mag. (U.K.) 27 May 24Mourning, laughing and even tiny, wagtail-sized Namaque [sic] doves arrive to raid the crops.
1983 K.B. Newman Newman’s Birds 196Namaqua dove,..The call is a seldom heard, explosive ‘twoo-hoo’. Commonly seen in grassland, fallow fields, thornveld and eroded areas, particularly in drier regions.
1993 M. Oettle in Weekend Post 9 Oct. (Leisure) 7Oena capensis, Namaqua dove, isavukazana. A small-bodied dove with a long, pointed, almost black tail and black face and throat, with white underparts and chestnut flight feathers.
1994 A. Craig in M. Roberts tr. of J.A. Wahlberg’s Trav. Jrnls 1838–56 46Namaqua dove Oena capensis, a bird of the dry interior which appears in coastal areas irregularly.
1801 J. Barrow Trav. I. 264Cape partridges and the Namaaqua[printed Hamaaqua]grous, were equally plentiful.
1887 A.A. Anderson 25 Yrs in Waggon II. 20Many kinds of beautiful birds, mocking-birds, swarms of the butcher-bird, namaqua-grouse.
1790 tr. of F. Le Vaillant’s Trav. II. 376Moor-fowl of a very beautiful species, which were accustomed to come by thousands, and light on the borders of this fountain. The Hottentots of the colonies call them Nimiqua partridge.
1812 A. Plumptre tr. of H. Lichtenstein’s Trav. in Sn Afr. (1828) I. 87We had here a Namaqua partridge...These birds..are about the size of a small pigeon, and very delicate.
1822 W.J. Burchell Trav. I. 265At this place we met with, for the first time, the Namaqua Partridge, a very small species of Grous.
1838 J.E. Alexander Exped. into Int. I. 46At the pools, flights of Namaqua partridges rose noiselessly from the stony ground, and..winged their whirring flight in gyrations through the air.
1866 J. Leyland Adventures 141Large flocks of Namaqua Partridges, or Sand-grouse, of which there are two or three kinds, were seen in the locality.
[1867 E.L. Layard Birds of S. Afr. 277The Namaqua Patrys of the colonists is very abundant on the arid Karroo plains throughout the colony and Namaqualand.]
1882 J. Nixon Among Boers 76R shot some Namaqua partridges near the dam. Split down the middle and cooked on a gridiron, they offer one of the most dainty titbits wild cookery can supply.
1897 H.A. Bryden Nature & Sport 33The only species of sand-grouse found in Cape colony, south of the Orange River, is pterocles tachypetes, known all over South Africa by the name ‘Namaqua Partridge,’ long since erroneously bestowed upon it by the Dutch Boers.
1920 F.C. Cornell Glamour of Prospecting 74At the pools of shallow water lying in the roads were Namaqua partridges by the thousand. These little plump, pretty game-birds are really a sand-grouse.
1937 H. Sauer Ex Afr. 56The Namaqua partridge or common sand-grouse.
1955 V. De Kock Fun They Had 159Bryden..writes [in 1897] of the strangely pigeon-like Sand-grouse, and the so-called Namaqua partridge, which gather at veld pools at sunset.
1892 W.L. Distant Naturalist in Tvl 105 (Pettman)The Natal Francolin, called by the Dutch the Namaqua pheasant.
1913 C. Pettman Africanderisms 334Namaqua pheasant, Francolinus natalensis. It is known as the ‘Coast pheasant’ in Natal.
1893 H.A. Bryden Gun & Camera 477This species drink only in the evening; the Namaqua sandgrouse between eight and ten in the morning, and sometimes in the afternoon.
1918 S.H. Skaife Animal Life in S. Afr. 231Namaqua sandgrouse is the commonest species and is abundant in all parts of the Karoo.
1923 Haagner & Ivy Sketches of S. Afr. Bird-Life 205The Namaqua Sandgrouse (Pteroclurus Namaqua) needs no further description than the attenuated centre tail feathers.
1964 L.G. Green Old Men Say 164You may..see the little Namaqua sandgrouse drinking round the vleis before sundown.
1971 K.B. Newman Birdlife in Sn Afr. (1979) 150Scientists have seen Namaqua Sandgrouse males fly in from their morning drink, land near their chicks and give them a drink from their wet plumage.
1984 G.L. Maclean Roberts’ Birds of Sn Afr. 298Namaqua Sandgrouse, Kelkiewyn. Pterocles namaqua...Habits:..flies up to 60km or more to water in flocks of hundreds or thousands daily, 1–3 hours after sunrise.
1991 Best of S. Afr. Short Stories (Reader’s Digest Assoc.) 10The birds for which the hunter ‘stood waiting in the rushes’ could well have been Namaqua sandgrouse (Pterocles namaqua), which were called ‘partridges’ in the early days.
B. adjective obs. Nama adjective sense 1. Always attributive.
1838 J.E. Alexander Exped. into Int. II. 72Our captives belonged to a large tribe of red men, speaking the Namaqua language.
1841 B. Shaw Memorials 18The Hottentot family is composed of the original Hottentot, Little Namacqua, Bushman, and Coranna tribes.
1841 B. Shaw Memorials 18 [see clapping].
1851 J. Tindall Jrnl (1959) 145Great enmity is manifested because while I had a few cattle remaining, I took them from thievish Namaqua shepherds, gave them to the care of Basterds and Damaras. They do not do well.
1889 F. Galton Trav. in S. Afr. 41The agents in this history are Namaqua ‘Oerlams,’ or Namaquas born in or near the colony, often having Dutch blood and a good deal of Dutch character in their veins. The Namaqua Hottentots look at these Oerlams with great jealousy.
Namanoun1.
Namaadjective1. Always attributive.
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16881994