ghomma, goema, noun

Forms:
ghoema, ghoomaShow more Also ghoema, ghooma, gomma, gooma, guma, and with initial capital.
Origin:
Afrikaans, Malay, Show more Afrikaans ghomma, ghoema probably from a dialectal Malay word related to gong gong (see quotation 1953); cf. English gum-gum iron bowl used as a drum. The word’s similarity to Xhosa and Zulu ingoma (see quotation 1939) is probably coincidental.
Music
1. A single-headed drum much used in the traditional music of the Cape Malay people. Also attributive, and combination (objective) gomma-player (see quotation 1944). See also ghommaliedjie.
1934 C.P. Swart Supplement to Pettman. 60One of the..accompanying instruments..is a gomma or small drum.
1939 P.R. Kirby in S. Afr. Jrnl of Science XXXVI. 477The ghomma..was made from a small cask with a skin nailed over one of the two open ends. The instrument was held..under the left arm and..struck alternately by the right and left palms.
1939 P.R. Kirby in S. Afr. Jrnl of Science XXXVI. 480The name ghomma, by which the Cape Malays call their drum, appears to be related to the Bantu word ngoma,..applied to some types of drum from the south to the north of Africa, and..to various dances involving the use of drums on the East coast of Africa.
1944 I.D. Du Plessis Cape Malays 59At a Malay picnic the participants form a circle, join hands, and walk round slowly, singing a verse of a Dutch folk song. This is followed by a ghommaliedjie, led by a ghomma-player seated in the centre.
1949 E. Hellmann Handbk on Race Rel. 593The dancing is accompanied by the beating of Ghommas, a type of flat, tight, skin hand-drum.
[1953 Du Plessis & Lückhoff Malay Quarter 46There is much uncertainty regarding the origin of the word. The Javanese use the word ghom for a gong when speaking Nederlands, and..this may be its origin.]
1965 K. Thompson Richard’s Way 79A ghomma drum was patting out Eastern rhythms while the voice of a child keened out the nasal words of a Western song.
1970 Cape Times 6 June (Weekend Mag.) 2To the throbbing beat of small hand-drums or ghommas, and monotonous chanting, the performers..present solo acts of apparent painless self-mutilation...Cape Town residents complained that the noise of booming ghommas and..chanting..in District Six and Malay Quarter houses was a disturbance.
1981 Cape Times 10 Jan. 12Rowdy groups chose paraffin tins as their ‘gommas’ (drums). These they banged to their hearts content, much to the annoyance of superstitious adults who believed that the striking of tins was an ill omen.
1988 Adams & Suttner William Str. 7Hettie Adams begins her story..with the sound of the ‘goema’ (pronounced ‘gooma’ as spelled in the text).
1989 Personality 26 June 77District Six gave rise to a new kind of..music. It had its roots in the beating of the goema drum on the slave ships sailing to Table Bay.
1993 D. Keen in Weekend Argus 2 Jan. 1It’s carnival time in Cape Town! The city is reverberating to the beat of Ghoema drums.
2. transferred sense. Also goema-goema. klopse sense 2; latterly, a musical style blending klopse with jazz and rock music. Also attributive.
Note:
The more recent style of ‘goema’ was popularized in the 1980s by ‘The Genuines’ and is exemplified in this group’s early songs and performances.
1980 D.B. Coplan Urbanization of African Performing Arts. 290Early Coloured dance bands in Johannesburg varied greatly in background and formal training...For Coloured-African stokfel parties and public dances, they performed music of Cape Coloured social dances, for example, vastrap, tickey draai, set-part, guma, and squares.
1987 New Nation 30 July 12Mr Mac has led many processions from goema ‘Nag Troupe’ to ballroom bands.
1987 New Nation 3 Dec. 11The Genuines have chucked out Goema’s ja-baas connotations but have emphasized its humour, anger, sensuality and subversiveness...Goema is an authentic original South African sound.
1991 G. Silber in Sunday Times 20 Jan. (Mag. Sect.) 10Between the hardcore Rap rhythms and the Goema-Goema jive of the Cape Flats, lies the sound of Prophets of the City.
1992 Pace Sept. 154The group (sc. The Genuines) created a minor storm..in the mid-Eighties with their complex fusion of traditional Cape ghoema music and jazz.
1993 Business Day 15 June 8From traditional Zulu lullabies to Sarie Marais, from the ’50s hit musical King Kong to Cape Malay goema,..rhythms and melodies that have shaped this country’s immensely rich cultural heritage.
A single-headed drum much used in the traditional music of the Cape Malay people. Also attributive, and combination (objective) gomma-player (see quotation 1944).
klopse2; latterly, a musical style blending klopse with jazz and rock music. Also attributive.

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19341993