gallsickness, noun

Origin:
South African DutchShow more Translation of South African Dutch galziekte, see galsiekte.
1. Pathology. Any of several diseases of livestock, and particularly of cattle: a. Anaplasmosis, a disease caused by the parasites Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale and transmitted by ticks (especially the blue tick); galsiekte sense 1 a; also with defining word, true gallsickness. b. Any of several conditions of the digestive tract: see dry gallsickness, impaction gallsickness, wet gallsickness, all at sense 2 b below. In both senses also called gallsick (sense a). Also attributive.
Note:
In the past there existed some confusion as to the nature and causes of these disorders and diseases, but nowadays ‘(true) gallsickness’ is used only of anaplasmosis; ‘dry’, ‘impaction’ or ‘wet gallsickness’ is used only of digestive tract disorders in ruminants.
1862 T. Shone Diary. 29 JuneA Goat died of gall sickness, belonging to T. Knight.
1875 J. Noble Descrip. Handbk of Cape Col. 259The ‘gal zeickte’ or gall sickness is also a common disease, and the chief barrier to rearing and grazing of sheep in the Zuurveldt.
c1881 A. Douglass Ostrich Farming 205Gall-sickness is..purely a disease of the liver and of the digestive organs, and is..in no way infectious.
1896 R. Wallace Farming Indust. of Cape Col. 288Gall-sickness is a term indiscriminately applied by farmers to derangements of the liver, brought about by many exciting causes — rich food, little exercise, and hot weather being three of the most common.
[1896 R. Wallace Farming Indust. of Cape Col. 288 [see black-gallsickness (sense 2 below)].]
1911 E. Prov. Herald 10 Oct.One of the diseases which had been under notice for a long time, and which he had only been able to trace to ticks about a year ago, was also commonly known as gall sickness.
1914 Farmer’s Annual 126Gall-sickness, or Bovine Anaplasmosis, is a disease of the blood caused by the parasite known as Anaplasma Marginale.
1914 Farmer’s Annual 214Gallsickness (anaplasmosis) is a tick-borne disease, and can be inoculated against. It almost always accompanies redwater, another tick-borne disease.
1916 Farmer’s Weekly 20 Dec. 1451 (advt)Steven’s Gallsickness Powders for Cattle and Sheep, 5s. per packet, post free.
c1929 Diseases & Pests Affecting Sheep & Goats (Cooper & Nephews) 27Indigestion (So-called ‘Gall-Sickness’). This is a derangement or disease of the digestive organs of ruminants — from simple indigestion and constipation..to acute congestion of the liver and other internal organs.
1953 Off. Yr Bk of Union No. 26, 1950 (Bureau of Census & Statistics) 914Anaplasma marginale, the cause of gallsickness in cattle.
1970 Vet. Products Handbk (I.C.I. Pharmaceuticals) 5Accurate diagnosis can only be made through the examination of a blood smear to differentiate between gallsickness and heartwater.
1970 Vet. Products Handbk (I.C.I. Pharmaceuticals) 42True gallsickness, also referred to as Anaplasmosis,..is transmitted by the same group of ticks as those causing redwater.
1976 Mönnig & Veldman Handbk on Stock Diseases 387Gallsickness — True or Tick (see Anaplasmosis).
1978 Daily Dispatch 16 Aug. 15Anaplasmosis or gallsickness, a tick-born disease which can be fatal to livestock has..become a great threat to the livelihood of farmers.
1991 [see blue tick].
2. Pathology With distinguishing epithet, designating any of several disorders affecting the digestive tract of livestock:
black-gallsickness obsolete, any disorder or disease which leads to the discoloration of the bile of the affected animal, particularly the often fatal sickness caused by poisoning due to eating species of Homeria and Moraea (see tulp); gallsick sense b;
dry gallsickness (also called droë-geilsiekte, see geilsiekte sense 2), or impaction gallsickness, constipation or blockage in ruminants caused either by eating too much dry fodder, or by infectious diseases accompanied by fever which prevent digestion and may paralyze any of the stomachs;
wet gallsickness, purging.
1896 R. Wallace Farming Indust. of Cape Col. 288True or black gall-sickness or biliary hepatitis in grazing cattle is comparatively rare.
1905 D. Hutcheon in Flint & Gilchrist Science in S. Afr. 354A large admixture of mucous and other cellular elements along with the bile..causes the latter often to present the appearance and consistency of Stockholm tar, which has given rise to the name of ‘Black-gallsickness’.
1913 C. Pettman Africanderisms 62Black-gallsickness, A form of sickness among cattle induced by eating Tulp.
1957 Handbk for Farmers (Dept of Agric.) III. 460The term ‘dry gallsickness’ merely indicates a stoppage of the alimentary tract of cattle.
1970 Vet. Products Handbk (I.C.I. Pharmaceuticals) 42Dry gallsickness,..a nutritional disorder with the symptoms of chronic constipation.
1971 Farmer’s Weekly 12 May 40Treat cattle with dry gallsickness with Agricura Gall-Sickness Remedy and Nupurgon.
1976 Mönnig & Veldman Handbk on Stock Diseases 285Should these [rumination] movements stop for some reason or other, a condition follows that can be described as and includes any of the following: dry gallsickness, impaction gallsickness, impaction or paralysis of the fore-stomachs.
1976 Mönnig & Veldman Handbk on Stock Diseases 287The following measures assist in preventing dry gallsickness: 1) Provide a liberal supply of drinking water. 2) Dry food, e.g. hay, can be moistened with diluted molasses.
1970 Vet. Products Handbk (I.C.I. Pharmaceuticals) 42Wet gallsickness..is actually gastro-enteritis caused through nutritional disorders, and must not be confused with parasitic gastro-enteritis.
1976 Mönnig & Veldman Handbk on Stock Diseases 287The condition (sc. dry gallsickness) is sometimes accompanied by purging. Such cases are spoken of as wet gallsickness.
3. combination.
gallsickness veld /-felt/ [Afrikaans veld open, undeveloped countryside], uncultivated pasture infested with ticks capable of transmitting anaplasmosis.
1971 Evening Post 27 Feb. 21All the cattle are bred on Redwater and Gallsickness veld.
1973 Farmer’s Weekly 18 May (Suppl.) 12Cattle are recognised for their hardiness and immunity to Redwater and Gallsickness, because of having been bred on virulent Redwater and Gallsickness veld.
1974 Farmer’s Weekly 27 Feb. 13All these cattle are in superb veld condition and are running on severe Heartwater, Redwater and Gallsickness veld.
1993 Natal Witness 31 Dec. 15 (advt)Livestock for Sale...Entire commercial Brangus type breeding herd...Cattle running on Heartwater/Redwater/Gallsickness veld.
Anaplasmosis, a disease caused by the parasites Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale and transmitted by ticks (especially the blue tick); galsiekte1 a; also with defining word, true gallsickness.
Any of several conditions of the digestive tract: see dry gallsickness, impaction gallsickness, wet gallsickness, all at 2 b below. In both senses also called gallsick (sense a). Also attributive.
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18621993