1986Learn & TeachNo.3, 1In other townships vigilantes have different names — the A-Team in Tumahole, the Pakathis in Thabong, the Amabutho in Durban, the Mbhokhoto in Kwa Ndebele and the ‘fathers’ in Cape Town.
1986Sowetan 13 Aug. 1The Imbhokoto is allegedly responsible for a reign of terror in the homeland to force people to accept the independence plan of chief Simon Skhosana.
1988N. Mathiane inFrontline May 20The real life of Ndebele people has become dominated by something which will never be seen in postcards — a police force called Imbokodo. ‘Imbokodo’ is an ancient word for a stone used for crushing and grinding. It has taken a new meaning in KwaNdebele.
1988Now Everyone Is Afraid (Catholic Inst. for Internat. Rel.) 110The government of this tiny and impoverished area stubbornly pressed ahead with their independence plans in spite of massive opposition from most of the residents. The government-created Mbokodo vigilante group and kitskonstabels have been the main tools used in attempts to crush this opposition. S.S. Skosana, Kwandebele’s Chief Minister, announced on May 7 1986 that the independence date was to be December 11 of that year. Just over three months later this decision was reversed after a bloody civil war and the defeat of the Mbokodo vigilantes.
1988Now Everyone Is Afraid (Catholic Inst. for Internat. Rel.) 122Some Mbokodo members were killed in public necklacings.
1988Now Everyone Is Afraid (Catholic Inst. for Internat. Rel.) 125In August 1986, the Kwandebele legislative assembly unanimously voted to both cancel independence and outlaw Mbokodo. The defeat of Mbokodo meant that a great popular victory had been won.
1990Drum May 22The notorious Mbokotho — a vigilante group — wreaked havoc during its reign of terror. Mbokotho was used to intimidate people who were opposing the independence of KwaNdebele.
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