Fetcani, noun

Forms:
Fecane, FetekaneShow more Also Fecane, Fetekane, Ficani, Fikani, Fitcani, Fitkanie.
Plurals:
unchanged.
Origin:
XhosaShow more Englished form of Xhosa iimfecani marauders (singular imfecane), see Mfecane.
historical
1. plural. A name given to any of several groups, clans, or tribes (especially the Ngwane), who, retreating southwards from present-day KwaZulu-Natal during the wars of the early 19th century, overpowered many southern Nguni peoples in turn; these groups collectively; Imfecane sense 1. Also attributive. See also Mantatee.
1827 W. Shaw Diary. 31 Aug.The tribe now approaching the Colony & Caffreland is called by the Caffres Fikani, and are..intrepid in warfare, very numerous, and very cruel.
1835 W.B. Boyce in A. Steedman Wanderings II. 269Api, the Ficani Chief, who was last April living above Faku, near the sources of the Zimvooboo, has been driven thence, by a commando from Dingaan the Zulu Chief.
1841 B. Shaw Memorials 47Other travellers have supposed them to be the same race of men as those known to the Kaffirs by the name of Ficani; for it is ascertained that Mantatees in the Bechuana language, and Ficani in the Kaffir, are synonymous terms, both signifying invaders.
1850 J.W. Appleyard Kafir Lang. 42Fecane is the root of imfecane, the Kafir word for desolater or marauder. It must not be mistaken, therefore, for a tribal name, being simply a descriptive term by which the Kafirs designate an unknown and foreign invader.
1877 R.M. Ballantyne Settler & Savage 279A wandering and warlike horde named the Fetcani had been for some time past driving all the other tribes before them, and were said at last to be approaching the Winterberg frontier of the colony.
1912 Ayliff & Whiteside Hist. of Abambo 16The name they gave the Amangwane was that of ‘Fetcani’, the Kaffir word for ‘desolators, marauders’, and they described them as fiends in human shape. It is as Fetcani they are known in Colonial History.
1972 A. Scholefield Wild Dog Running 134A branch of the Mantatee horde called the Fetcani had driven south-west and, after savaging the land of the Tambookies, were now plundering the country of the Galekas.
1980 Lye & Murray Transformations 50He used time and circumstances to consolidate his power. As his son, Nehemiah Moshoeshoe, observed, ‘The paramountcy was created by the disturbances of the Fetcani’, the wandering hordes.
2. The Mfecane, see Mfecane.
1972 J.P. van S. Bruwer in Std Encycl. of Sn Afr. IX. 598From these wars resulted the forced migration (termed lifaqane, difaqane, fetcani or mfecane by the Bantu) of many tribes between 1818 and the time of the Great Trek.
A name given to any of several groups, clans, or tribes (especially the Ngwane), who, retreating southwards from present-day KwaZulu-Natal during the wars of the early 19th century, overpowered many southern Nguni peoples in turn; these groups collectively; Imfecane1. Also attributive.
The Mfecane, see Mfecane.

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18271980