Sets of quotations illustrate the historical use of each word from its earliest recorded occurrence and form the basis for the definitions provided.

kaartjie, noun . . . 1952 ‘Mr Drum’ in Drum Sept. 12 Scientifically known as Indian hemp, dagga. . is known . . . 1963 L.F. Freed in Crime in S. Afr. 140 The street-corner loafers, with their pockets crammed . . . 1978 C. Van Wyk Staffrider Vol.1 No.2, 37 can we have so two kachies, please . . . 1978 L.A. Barnes in The 1820 Vol.51 No.12, 19 He is referring to the practice of preparing a kaitchee . . . 1979 J. Rogers in Staffrider Vol.2 No.3, 24 A police sergeant at a roadblock..found four kaartjies . . . 1984 D. Pinnock Brotherhoods 28 The dagga is..distributed by countless runners . . . 1986 L.A. Barnes in Eng. Usage in Sn Afr. Vol.17 No.2, 6 The sub-culture of the dagga smoker is . . .

Position of quotations

Each sense (or subdivision thereof) is supported by a single set of quotations arranged in chronological order.

Compounds, when presented as a separate block, are followed by a single set of quotations. Quotations are initially grouped according to the alphabetical ordering of the compounds list and then arranged chronologically for each compound form. This means that the first quotation shown alphabetically may not be the earliest. For example in the block of compounds under the entry for karee, the first quotation for karee-berry is dated 1947. However, kareebos, which occurs alphabetically further down the list, shows 1939 as its earliest quotation. To assist locating the set of quotations for a particular compound, the first occurrence of each compound form is marked in bold typeface in the quotation block.

Derivatives are generally followed by their own set of quotations. Quotations are presented as one chronological block, with no distinction made in cases where more than one derived form is shown. See for example the entry for braai.

In cases when a headword is characterised by two or more distinct variant forms (indicated using Greek characters α, β, etc.), each group is supported by a unique set of quotations given in chronological order. See for example the entry for aardvark.

Styling conventions in the quotation block

By default, only the first and last quotations are shown for each quotation block. The complete list of quotations can be displayed by clicking Show more.

By default, only the first and last quotations are shown for each quotation block. The complete list of quotations can be displayed by tapping Show more.

The date of each quotation is given in bold and, wherever possible, the person actually responsible for the citation is named in small capitals, including the author of a work published in a periodical or in an edited collection of material. Published titles are italicised, unpublished titles in roman. Informal quotations are labeled Informant, indicated in italics, and may be preceded by a name. Where an institution is the issuing source, the title of the work is given first, followed by the name of the institution in brackets.

moggel, noun . . . 1980 Grocott’s Mail 19 Dec. 4 Other South African fishes which grazed on algae included the Labeo or moggel
amandla, interjection . . . 1977 Rhodeo (Rhodes Univ.) 30 Sept. 3 Suddenly he bellowed Amandla! at the crowd
gawie, noun . . . 1970 J. Stodel Informant, Cape Town I can hear by your ghawi-accent

Where a date of death has been used, sources are dated ‘ante’ the date of death, and where external evidence has led to the determination of a probable date of publication, sources are dated ‘circa’ that year. Where the date of utterance differs from the date of publication of the edition used, the latter is given in round brackets immediately after the title.

vrot, adjective . . . c1929 S. Black in S. Gray Three Plays (1984) 95 The government is absolutely vrot, rotten
bag, noun . . . a1930 G. Baumann in Baumann & Bright Lost Republic (1940) 95 Mealies were 2s.6d a bag

Informational quotations are given in square brackets.

Cape wine, noun phrase . . . [1731 G. Medley tr. of P. Kolben's Present State of Cape of G.H. II. 80 I have drank, at the Governour's, Capian Wine which was Six Years old; and which sparkled like old Hock, and was as racy as the noblest Canary.]

Source details

Although detailed bibliographic references for most citations are listed in the Select Bibliography, the short reference used in the citation is usually sufficient to identify the text or edition used. The numbering of volumes and parts (or sections) reflects the numbering used in the source documents. A page number is given wherever possible. Although extraordinary typefaces have been standardized on italic and some extraneous material has been omitted (omissions are indicated by ellipses), care has always been taken to remain true to the authorʼs intent.