umkumkani, noun

Forms:
Also ukumkani.
Origin:
Xhosa
obs.
paramount sense a. Also transferred sense.
1835 A. Steedman Wanderings I. 247The Amakosa tribe, whose ‘Umkumkani’ or sovereign, is Hintza, extend from the colony to the mouth of the Bashee river.
1835 A. Steedman Wanderings I. 255The Umkumkani is usually a lineal descendant from the first great patriarchal chieftain of the tribe, and the title of Inkose enkulu is enjoyed exclusively by himself: all his male descendants are called Inkosi by birthright; but their power depends in a great degree upon their popularity, the people being at liberty to attach themselves to whichsoever of the sons their inclination may lead them to prefer.
1855 J.W. Colenso Ten Weeks in Natal 100Now He is living in Heaven, though we cannot see Him, and He is the Lord of us all, — the Umkumkani, Supreme King, Whose Kingdom ruleth over all; and we must obey Him, and try to please Him in all things.
1860 W. Shaw Story of my Mission 433The Chief, who is the lineal representative for the time being of the great family, is regarded as the head of the nation, and called Ukumkani, which is equivalent to King, or paramount Chief.
1870 C. Hamilton Life & Sport in S.-E. Afr. 58The villages are each under the control of one petty Chieftain...These, again, are subject to the sole authority of the ‘umkumkani,’ or great chief.
paramounta. Also transferred sense.
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