South African Dutch, DutchShow more South African Dutch, from Dutch hart (variant of hert) hart + linking phoneme -e- + beest beast, animal; see quotation 1786.
a.A name applied to any of several antelope of the genera Damaliscus, Sigmoceros, and Alcephalus of the Bovidae, especially the red hartebeest and the Lichtenstein’s hartebeest (see sense b below); hartebeast sense a. Also attributive.See also tsessebe.
[1786G. Forstertr. ofA. Sparrman’s Voy. to Cape of G.H.I. 129The two largest sorts of antilopa or gazels..are called by the Dutch, hartbeest and Bunteboks; the former name, which signifies hart-beast, was probably given to the former of these creatures on account of some resemblance they showed in colour to the harts of Europe.]
[1790W. PatersonNarr. of Four Journeys 81A species of Antelope, called by the Dutch, Hartebeest, which is the Capra Dorcas of Linnaeus.]
1821S. Afr. Jrnl (1824) I.i. 18The countless herds of springboks, hartebeests..and other large game, described by former travellers as..adding so much life and beauty to the lonely landscape of Albany, have..almost totally disappeared.
1846T. Pringle inR. MoffatMissionary Labours 89The hartebeest is one of the finest animals of the antelope family; it is fleet, and graceful in its gait.
1860A.W. DraysonSporting Scenes 62The hartebeest..: male five feet high, and nine in extreme length..; colour bright sienna, with a red shade, black stripes down the back of the neck, on the fore-leg and on the hind-leg.
1896R. WallaceFarming Indust. of Cape Col. 245The hartebeest, Alcelaphus caama, is one of the fleetest and longest-winded of South African antelopes.
1914W.C. ScullyLodges in WildernessThe ungainly hartebeest lumbered away..at a pace which made pursuit hopeless.
1948A.C. WhiteCall of Bushveld 149The sessaby..certainly is a branch of the hartebeest species — horns and head proclaim this fact.
1951A. RobertsMammals 277The Hartebeests..are not aggressive, attempting to get away rather than defend themselves, except as a last resort..usually making-off in the so characteristic wavy lumbering gallop.
1970Life 19 Jan. 49The horns of the hartebeest (‘hart’ or ‘stag’ beast in South African Dutch) are unlike those of any other animal.
1976D.M.B. PrestonStory of Frontier Town 23There are no hartebeest in this area today. Their beautiful red-brown pliable hides were much prized by the Xhosas and particularly by the Bechuanas for making soft cloaks, which fact contributed to their extermination.
1987T.F.J. Van RensburgIntro. to Fynbos 51The hippo, black rhino and hartebeest..disappeared a long time ago.
1991Personality 5 Aug. 26I’ve..seen hartebeest lying dead in the pen while that lot was actually being auctioned.
b. With distinguishing epithet, designating a particular species of hartebeest:
bastard hartebeestobsolete except in historical contexts [translation of South African Dutch basterhartebeest, probably so called because the antelope was thought to be a hartebeest of impure stock; cf. Bastardadjective], the tsessebe, Damaliscus lunatus;
Cape hartebeest, see red hartebeest (below);
flat-horned hartebeest [so called because its horns are flattened at the base], Lichtenstein’s hartebeest/ˈlɪxtənˌstəɪnz -/ [named for the German naturalist M.H.K. Lichtenstein (1780–1857)], or moffhartebeest, mofhartebeest/ˈmɔf-/ [Afrikaans, mof of impure breeding, probably from Dutch mof, muf literally ‘musty’, an insult usually applied to foreigners; cf. mofadjective], the antelope Sigmoceros lichtensteinii (usually referred to as ‘Lichtenstein’s hartebeest’), yellow-tawny in colour, and now found only in Zimbabwe and Mozambique, in small numbers;
red hartebeest, any of several southern African subspecies of the antelope Alcelaphus buselaphus, especially A.b. caama, reddish-brown to yellowish-fawn in colour, with pale rump; kama.
1989D. DayEncycl. of Vanished Species 194Another Hartebeest, the Cape Red form..was saved from extinction...The Cape Hartebeest was abundant throughout South and South West Africa when the white settlers arrived.
1891R. WardSportsman’s Handbk 124Flat-horned Hartebeests, found near the river Sabi, in south-eastern Mashunaland.
1896R. WardRec. of Big Game 65The true Hartebeeste of South Africa — often called by the Boers the Rooi (red) Hartebeeste, to distinguish it from the Tsessebe (Bastard Hartebeeste or Zulu Hartebeeste of the Dutch hunters) and Lichtenstein’s Hartebeeste — is still, thanks to its wariness, speed, and desert-loving habits, fairly abundant in many of its ancient haunts.
1900W.L. SclaterMammals of S. Afr.I. 136Lichtenstein’s hartebeest is only found in the north-eastern part of South Africa.
1980[see quot. at red hartebeestbelow].
1987Weekend Argus 5 Sept. (Suppl.) 5Readers helped bring the Lichtenstein’s hartebeest back to South Africa.
1985Breakfast cereal packaging, Kellogg Co. (Pty) LtdWe have allowed the Mofhartebeest to disappear from under our very noses...As little as 60 years ago some Mofhartebeest still graced our veld with their presence. Early hunters and explorers knew them well.
1900W.L. SclaterMammals of S. Afr.I.Red Hartebeest, Bubalis caama...Hartebeest of the Dutch and English Colonists.
1925F.C. SlaterCentenary Bk of S. Afr. Verse 234Bubalis caama, the Red Hartebeeste, is a large ungainly antelope once found throughout the country, but now restricted to the Kalahari region.
1964G. CampbellOld Dusty 132The quagga are extinct, and the white rhino and red hartebeest are on the verge.
1974E. Prov. Herald 7 Sept. 6Only 1500 red hartebeest and 540 wildebeest remain — both..enjoyed a far wider distribution in the past.
1980J. HanksMammals 36Red Hartebeest, Alcelaphus buselaphus...Formerly occurred in Natal in high rainfall areas, but it is now restricted to arid parts of Southern Africa, where it is mainly a grazer...Lichtenstein’s Hartebeest, Alcelaphus lichtensteini [sic] Colour variable, usually a fairly bright rufous on the back.
1988A. Hall-Martin et al.Kaokoveld 37The red hartebeest is not normally regarded as a resident of the kaokoveld...Their status is vulnerable.
A name applied to any of several antelope of the genera Damaliscus, Sigmoceros, and Alcephalus of the Bovidae, especially the red hartebeest and the Lichtenstein’s hartebeest (see b below); hartebeasta. Also attributive.
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