α.fanagalo, fana-galoShow more fanagalo, fana-galo, fanagolo, fanago-lo, sefanagalo; β.fanakalo, fana-ka-loShow more fanakalo, fana-ka-lo, fanakolo. Also with initial capital.
Fanakalo, Show more Fanakalo, formed on the Nguni-language word fana be like + possessive particle ka- + lo this, an expression supposedly used often in Fanakalo when one person instructs another to do something ‘like this’, ‘in this manner’.
A lingua franca developed and used by southern African mining companies, composed of (frequently corrupted) elements of the Nguni languages, English, and Afrikaans; eina-taal, see einanoun sense 2; lapa language, see lapaadverb. Also attributive, and figurative.
The name ‘fanakalo’ was adopted by mining authorities and other employers to avoid the offensive word ‘kaffir’ in the former names kitchen kaffir (see kitchennoun sense 1 b) and mine kaffir (see kaffirnoun sense 3 d).
1948O. WalkerKaffirs Are Lively 28‘Fanago-lo’..evolved on the Rand goldmines as a lingua franca for the transmission of commands between the white mine-captains and boss-boys and the broad, heterogeneous mass of many-tongued African labourers.
1957J.D. BoldDict., Grammar & Phrase Bk of Fanagalo 6Fanagalo is a very much simplified form of Nguni (Zulu, Xhosa and related languages), with adaptations of modern terms from English and Dutch. It was probably evolved in the Eastern Cape and Natal during contacts between European settlers and native tribes...The appellation ‘Fanagalo’ probably derives from ‘kuluma fana ga lo’, meaning to ‘speak like this’. The language has also been called ‘Kitchen Kaffir’, and ‘Mine Kaffir’.
1958H. WichtRd below Me 78I found some difficulty in communicating..until a mine-boy came along...In Fanagalo we had a language that we both understood.
1977Family Radio & TV 29 Aug. 24He conquered the strangeness of Fanagalo and could communicate with men from as far as South West Africa.
1982D. Bikitsha inRand Daily Mail 14 Oct. (Eve) 5This language unlike ‘fanagalo’ which is considered an affront and bastardisation of black languages, has a romantic and flamboyant history. Where fanagalo is gross, heavy and uncouth, tsotsi taal is smooth, facile and poetic to an extent.
1989J. HobbsThoughts in Makeshift Mortuary 92She did not use the pidgin Zulu once known as kitchen kaffir, but now that the word ‘kaffir’ was acknowledged as insulting, called Fanagalo.
1990Weekend Argus 17 Feb. 12The language..might sound a bit like a Fanagalo of politics at times. But..it is..to be expected..when strangers living in the same country suddenly find themselves thrown together in the same political workplace.
1991Advertising leaflet, Reader’s Digest Assoc.Did you know that..Blacks regard Fanagalo..as an inferior and undignified means of communication.
1993K. Kgositsile inSn Afr. Review of Bks July–Aug. 21Even when in despair I try to point out correctly that our languages are much older, much more expressive, poetically much richer than English, which is an admirably advanced fanagalo in spite of its imperialist, sexist, racist and class biases, my advice tends to remain suspect because: ‘But, don’t I say, Bra Willie writes in English himself mos, so how come then?’
1994A. Levin inStyle Oct. 95Rattling away in Fanagalo, he drags me through the crowd.
1962A.P. CartwrightGold Miners 223‘Mompara’ (the Fanakalo word for one who is dim-witted).
1972P. Becker inStar 17 Mar. B6Don’t speak Fanakalo as long as you can converse in a vernacular language. But if you can’t..then..resort to that droop-eared, scraggy-haired, communicating donkey called Fanakalo.
1972S. LynneGlittering Gold 46Fana-ka-lo, the simple mine language..taught to the Africans and white employees on their arrival at the mine.
1979Voice 7 Oct. 2Ari Paulus’s fanakalo (miners) boys could beat the daylights out of him, anywhere, at any time.
1979C. Van der Merwe inFrontline Dec. 17Flytaal..embraces Capeytaal and a large chunk of fanakalo.
1984Sunday Times 29 Jan. 11Conservative followers..reject what they call the ‘fanakalo Mass’ in favour of the original Latin Mass.
1986Thousand Ways to Die (National Union of Mineworkers) 32It is important for everybody underground to speak the same language. But..most workers hate Fanakalo. They say that Fanakalo is insulting, or ‘Fanakalo is the language of masters and slaves.’
1988J. Matlou inStaffriderVol.7No.3, 49Mine people were..singing..in the mine language, ‘sefanagalo’.
1989T.C. Mbatha inNatal Witness 30 Mar. (Witness Echo) 19I am totally against those semi-literate people who speak semi-English and fanakalo Zulu with whites and Indians...This fanakalo language is theirs, not ours.
1990Natal Witness 28 Dec. 5South Africa’s largest mining groups have begun phasing out the hybrid language of command...‘Fanakalo is not a language in which you can share feelings, express grievances, share information. It is not the language for the style of management we want.’
A lingua franca developed and used by southern African mining companies, composed of (frequently corrupted) elements of the Nguni languages, English, and Afrikaans; eina-taal, see einanoun2; lapa language, see lapaadverb. Also attributive, and figurative.
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